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Programming and Data Structure

Programming and Data Structure. Sudeshna Sarkar. Lecture 1. About the Course. L-T-P rating of 3-0-3. Single grade will be assigned for the theory and the laboratory courses combined. If a student fails in either the theory or the laboratory, or both, he/she gets a ‘F’ grade automatically.

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Programming and Data Structure

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  1. Programming and Data Structure Sudeshna Sarkar Lecture 1 Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  2. About the Course • L-T-P rating of 3-0-3. • Single grade will be assigned for the theory and the laboratory courses combined. • If a student fails in either the theory or the laboratory, or both, he/she gets a ‘F’ grade automatically. • 60% theory + 40% laboratory • Evaluation in the theory course: • Mid-semester (30 %) • End-semester (50%) • Two class tests (20%) Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  3. Course Materials • The course materials are available as PowerPoint slides. • How to get them? • A copy will be given to a representative to be kept at a xerox centre so it wil be available to all the students. • For students having access to Internet, the slides would be available on-line at http://facweb.iitkgp.ernet.in/~sudeshna/pds02/index.html Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  4. Reference Books • A Book on C • Al Kelley & Ira Pohl, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, Asia • Programming With C • B.S. Gottfried, Schaum’s Outline Series, Tata McGraw-Hill, 1991. • The C Programming Language, 2nd Edition (Ansi C), • B. W. Kernighan & D. M. Ritchie, Prentice Hall • Data Structures using C and C++, 2nd Edition • Langsam, Augenstein & Tenenbaum, PHI Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  5. What is a computer ? • A computer is a machine which can accept data, process the data and supply results. In Computer Out Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  6. A computer Input Peripherals Central Processing Unit (CPU) Output Peripherals Main Memory Storage Peripherals Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  7. Output Devices Input Devices • VDU / Monitor • Printers • Plotters • Sound cards • Film and video • Robot arms • Keyboard • Mouse • Joystick • Scanners (OCR) • Bar code readers • Microphones / Sound digitizers • Voice recognition devices Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  8. Storage Peripherals • Magnetic Tape • Data stored sequentially (back ups) • Magnetic Disks • Direct (random) access possible • Types • Hard Disks • Floppy Disks • Optical Disks • CDROM • CD-RW Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  9. Typical Configuration of a PC • CPU: Pentium 4, 1.5 GHz • Main Memory: 128 MB • Hard Disk: 40 GB • Floppy Disk: 1.44 MB • CDROM: 52X • Input Device: Keyboard, Mouse • Output Device: Color Monitor (17 inch) Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  10. How does a computer work? • Stored program • A program is a set of instructions for carrying out a specific task. • Programs are stored in secondary memory, when created. • Programs are in main memory during execution. Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  11. CPU • Central Processing Unit (CPU) is where computing takes place in order for a computer to perform tasks. • CPU’s have large number of registers which temporarily store data and programs (instructions). • The CPU receives stored instructions, interprets them and acts upon them. Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  12. Computer Program • A program is simply • a sequence of numeric codes stored in memory which is converted into simple operations (instructions for the CPU). This type of code is known as machine code. • The instructions are retrieved from • consecutive memory locations unless the current instruction tells it otherwise (branch / jump instructions). Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  13. Programming Languages • Machine language • Assembly Language • Mnemonics (opcodes) • Higher level languages • Compiled languages: • C, C++, Pascal, Fortran • Converted to machine code using compilers • Interpreted Languages: • Basic, lisp • Read-eval loop Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

  14. Program Instruction Set • Start • Read M • Write M • Load Data, M • Copy M1, M2 • Add M1, M2, M3 • Sub M1, M2, M3 • Compare M1, M2, M3 • Jump L • J_Zero M, L • Halt 0: Start 1: Read 10 2: Read 11 3: Add 10, 11, 12 4: Write 12 5: Halt Sudeshna Sarkar, IIT Kharagpur

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