Chapter 16 The Civil War Begins 1861-1862
I. Find Out A. How fighting began at Fort Sumter B. The strengths and weaknesses of each side C. Each side’s basic strategy D. The results of the first battle of Bull Run
Fort Sumter was located in the harbor of Charleston, SC. under the command of Major Robert Anderson. Lincoln decided to send supplies rather than give it to the Confederates. 1. As they seceded from the Union, the Southern states took over most of the federal forts inside their borders. President Abraham Lincoln had to decide what to do about the forts that remained under federal control. Major Robert Anderson and his garrison held on to Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, S.C., but they were running out of supplies.
II. First Shots at Fort Sumter A. Southern states began seizing federal forts inside borders once they seceded B. Lincoln had to decide what to do with those that remained under federal control C. Fort Sumter was located in the harbor of Charleston, SC D. Under command of Major Robert Anderson E. Running out of supplies
E.Lincoln risked war if he supplied Fort Sumter F. If he ordered the troops to leave, he was giving in to the rebels G. Lincoln decided to send supplies (2) H. April 12, 1861, at 4:30 a.m. shore guns opened fire on the island fort i. Fired on the fort for 34 hours j. Major Anderson surrendered (3) k. Civil War had begun
Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely when firing a salute during the evacuation.
F. Lincoln Calls Out the Militia 1. Asked for 75,000 militiamen to volunteer for 90 days to put down the uprising (4) 2. Citizens of North responded with enthusiasm 3. Robert E. Lee resigned from Union to fight for the Confederacy 4. He could not turn his back on his birthplace, home, or children (6) 5. With Virginia on its side, the Confederacy had a much better chance for victory because it was wealthy and populous. The Confederacy moved its capital to Richmond, Va., in May of 1861.
Choosing Sides 1. Four original border states played a key role in the outcome of the war 2. Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky,& Missouri 3. They were states that bordered states where slavery was illegal 4. Provided a buffer between US and Confederacy (7) Maryland was of critical importance because losing it would cut off Washington, DC, the nation’s capital, from the rest of the Union. (8) Kentucky’s rivers made it important because they provided an invasion route for the North and barrier for the South. (9)
10. How did West Virginia become a State? • Federal troops helped a group of western counties break away from Virginia in 1863 and form the state of West Virginia • People in Western Virginia felt disconnected to wealthy aristocracy of Eastern Virginia • Was going to be called Kanawha
Advantages of North (11) 1. Union has 22 million in population 2. South has 9 million (3.5 M in slaves) 3. 85% of factories in North 4. North has double the railroad mileage 5. Almost all naval power and shipyards in North 6. Great leader in Abraham Lincoln
I. Confederate Advantages (12) 1. Able generals like Robert E. Lee 2. Fighting a defensive war 3. Defending their homeland
The Confederate Strategy (13) 1. Take a defensive position and not conquer North 2. King Cotton a. Hoped to win foreign support through cotton trade b. Withheld cotton from market c. Wanted France and Britain to aid cause d. Surplus in 1861 ruined plan e. Began to take offensive and win big victories
The Union Strategy (14) 1. Bring Southern states back into Union 2. Called Anaconda plan a. Smother South’s economy b. Blockade southern coastline c. Gain control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in two
The goal of the Anaconda Plan was to cut the South in half by blockading Southern ports and capturing the Mississippi River. This plan was devised by General Winfield Scott.
First Battle of Bull Run (15) 1. Confederate troops stationed at Manassas, Va., SW of Washington, D.C. 2. July 21, 1861, Union forces led by General Irvin McDowell clashed with Confederate troops led by Gen. Pierre Beauregard 3. Little creek was called Bull Run where battle was held 4. Stonewall Jackson’s nickname 5. “Rebel Yell” 6. First major battle of war
Bull Run was a small creek that was located north of Manassas, Virginia, a railway center southwest of Washington, D.C. On July 21, 1861, Union and Confederate troops clashed in the first real battle of the Civil War. The battle turned into a convincing Confederate victory (15), and General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson received his famous nickname for standing tall “like a stonewall” in the face of the battle (16).
Stonewall Jackson standing tall during the first Battle of Bull Run. After standing their ground in the face of battle during the Union charge, the Rebels soon Received 9,000 reinforcements which turned the tide of the battle their way. The disorganized Union retreat back to Washington meant defeat for the Union troops.
Life in the Army A. Find Out 1. Who joined the armies 2. Describe military training and supplies of the era 3. Summarize the hardships of army life 4. Identify changes in military technology
The North expected a quick victory when they clashed with Confederates at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. Afterwards, the North realized that the war was not going to be as quick as they thought.
Those Who Fought 1. Most soldiers on both sides were between 18-30 (1) 2. Farmers made up largest group (2) 3. Many immigrants from other countries served. German and Irish made up largest group. (3) 4. African Americans served for North later in war (4) 5. Native Americans served on both sides (5) 6. In all, about 2 million American soldiers served the Union, and fewer than 1 million served in the Confederacy. The vast majority were volunteers, seeking adventure and glory.
Turning Civilians into Soldiers 1. Army camps looked like a sea of canvas tents (7) 2. Grouped by company with 2-20 men in a tent 3. Men elected their company officers 4. Followed routine after roll call and breakfast a. Drill sessions b. Guard duty, cut wood, dug trenches, cleaned up the camp (8)
Civil War camps often looked like a sea of canvas tents. Life in the camps was often difficult and demanding.
5. Uniforms a. Union soldiers wore blue uniforms (9) b. Confederates- gray or yellowish- brown (9) c. Both sides faced shortages of uniforms of the right size was a problem and often traded (9) d. Confederate troops often marched over frozen ground with no shoes
6. Union clothing often poor quality because contractors took advantage of the government’s need and supplied shoddy goods (10) 7. Confederates differed from state to state 8. Needy soldiers often took clothes off the dead soldiers (11) 9. Soldiers often went hungry because supply trains couldn’t reach the battlefield (12) 10. Food consisted of beef or salt pork, flour, vegetables, and coffee
D. Hardships of Army Life 1. Soldiers were often wet, muddy, or cold from marching outdoors and living in crude shelters 2. Many camps were unsanitary and smelled from garbage and latrines (13) 3. Soldiers as well as camps were filthy as they often went weeks without bathing or washing their clothes, and became infested with lice and fleas 4. Poor hygiene resulted in widespread sickness. Most soldiers had chronic diarrhea or other intestinal disorder. These disorders were caused by contaminated water or food or by germ-carrying insects. People didn’t know that germs caused diseases. (15) 5. Unclean instruments of doctors caused disease
Changes in Military Technology (16) 1. Rifles with grooved barrels allowed bullets to spin and be more accurate with longer distance 2. Rifles with minié balls 3. Ironclad ships changed naval warfare on both sides as wooden ships were clad with iron
Lead minié balls changed battle field tactics because they could shoot more accurately than round balls. When they entered the body they flattened out which caused more serious damage to the body. More soldiers died from infections after being shot than by the wounds themselves.
USS Monitor (Union) and the Merrimack (Virginia) squared off in the first ironclad battle on March 9, 1862, off the coast of Virginia. The battle ended in a stalemate.
No End in Sight A. Find Out 1. Analyze the Union victories in the South 2. Explain how the fall of New Orleans helped the Union 3. Analyze Lee’s victories in the East and his decision to invade the North 4. Describe the Battle of Antietam
B. Union Victories in the West 1. February of 1862 2. Ulysses S. Grant moves on Tennessee 3. Uses ironclad gunboats 4. Captures two Confederate river forts(1) a. Fort Henry on the Tennessee River b. Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River 5. Opened up river highway into the heart of the South 6. Grant’s army moved into Nashville and people fled the city in panic (2)
By taking Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, Grant opened the South for Union victories through river travel. After Grant’s river victories, Albert S. Johnston, Confederate commander on the western front, ordered a retreat to Corinth, MS. Grant followed. By early April (1862), Grant’s troops had reached Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. There Grant waited for more troops from Nashville. Johnston decided to attack before Grant gained reinforcements. (3)
C. The Battle of Shiloh (Place of Peace) 1. Confederate commander Albert S. Johnston moved troops to Corinth, MS 2. Grant moved his troops to Pittsburg Landing in Tennessee 3. Johnston’s army surprised Grant’s troops at the in fiercest fighting of the war in the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee (4) 4. Union Victory a. 13,000 Union causalities, about ¼ who fought b. 11,000 of 41,000 Confederates were causalities (5) 5. Lincoln says he can’t replace Grant because he fights despite heavy criticism (6)
D. The Fall of New Orleans 1. April 25, 1862, Union fleet led by David Farragut captured New Orleans 2. Largest city in the South 3. Rebel gunboats tried to ram Union warships, sinking one 4. Dodge burning rafts 5. Left only 150 miles of Mississippi in Confederate hands, nearly cutting South in two (7)
After capturing New Orleans in 1862, only 150 miles of the Mississippi remained in Union hands.
E. Lee Claims Victories in the East 1. Spring 1862 Gen. McClellan (Union) decides to capture Richmond 2. Took troops in stretch of land between York and James Rivers, a few miles within Richmond (8) 3. Robert E. Lee took command of Army of Northern Virginia in June of 1862 (9) 4. Lee sent Jeb Stuart and Calvary of 1000 men to survey Union army size (10) 5. Robert E. Lee attacked McClellan’s army 6. Seven Days’ Battles lead to Confederate victory 6. From June 25 to July 1, 1862 7. Forced McClellan to retreat and Richmond was saved (11)
8. 2nd Battle of Bull Run in August, 1862 9. Another Confederate victory F. Lee Invades the North 1. Crucial time with North at low point 2. Crossed Potomac and invaded Maryland in early September of 1862 3. Hoped victory in the North might get Lincoln to talk peace 4. Might convince France and Britain to aid South if they won a victory (12)
G. Bloody Antietam 1. Union soldier finds battle plans 2. Gave McClellan a chance to stop Lee 3. McClellan moved slowly again (13) 4. Armies clashed on September 17,1862 5. Sharpsburg, MD, at Antietam Creek 6. Bloodiest single day battle in American history 7. Neither side gained much ground 8. 25,000 casualties 9. Lee lost 1/3 of fighting force and withdrew to Virginia (14) 10. McClellan didn’t follow and was later fired
7 Facts About Antietam • Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties. • This was a two to one battle with Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia having approximately 45,00 troops to Union Army Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s 90,000 troops. • General Lee’s battle plans were known in advance. Two Union soldiers (Corporal Barton W. Mitchell and First Sergeant John M. Bloss of the 27th Indiana Volunteer Infantry) discovered a mislaid copy of Lee’s detailed battle plans-Special Order 191-wrapped around three cigars. McClellan delayed acting on this knowledge 18 hours, thus losing the opportunity laid at his feet. • McClellen was a poor leader during this battle, issuing isolated commands to each unit, causing chaos during the execution of said plans. • The battle began at 5:30 AM (Dawn) on September 17, 1862, and lasted until 5:30 PM that day. • The Union had 12,401 casualties with 2,108 dead. Confederate casualties were 10,318 with 1,546 dead. • President Lincoln was disappointed in McClellan’s performance. He believed that McClellan’s cautious and poorly coordinated actions in the field had forced the battle to a draw rather than a crippling Confederate defeat. Lincoln relieved McClellan of his command of the Army of the Potomac on November 7 after repeated demands that he do his job effectively and bravely, effectively ending the general’s military career.
Lincoln was so fed up with McClellan failing to go on the offensive that he fired him after the Battle of Antietam when McClellan didn’t follow Lee’s army into Virginia.