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National Training Collaborative for Social Marketing

National Training Collaborative for Social Marketing

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National Training Collaborative for Social Marketing

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  1. National Training Collaborative for Social Marketing Session Seven Behavioral Determinant and Theories

  2. Session Objectives • Describe factors that influence behavior • Describe how identification of doers / nondoers can influence decisions • List reasons why research to identify behavioral determinants is important • Identify potential determinants relevant to their own intervention programs

  3. Questions to Address • What determines behavior? • How do we explain behavior?

  4. Background Models and Theories

  5. 1. Levels of Influence (adapted from Glanz & Rimer, 1995) • Individual Factors: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, personality • Interpersonal Factors: social identity, support, roles • Institutional Factors: rules, regulations, informal structures • Community Factors: social networks, norms • Public Policy: regulations/laws

  6. 2. Stages of Change Model(Prochaska, et. al., 1992) • Precontemplation - unaware of problem • Contemplation - thinking about change in near future • Decision / Determination - making a plan to change • Action - implementation of specific action plans • Maintenance - repetition of desired behavior

  7. 3. Social Learning / Social Cognition (see Glanz & Rimer, 1995) • Behavioral capability • Expectations • Self-efficacy • Observational learning • Reinforcement • Social support

  8. a. Behavioral Capability • Knowledge and skills to influence behavior • application: • provide information and training about new behavior

  9. b. Expectations • Beliefs about likely results of new behavior • application: • incorporate information about likely results of behavior in advance

  10. c. Self-efficacy • Defined: confidence to take action • Also known as “personal control” • Dimensions: • internal / external • globality / specificity • stability / instability • Illusions of control • point out strengths • use persuasion and encouragement • approach behavior change in small steps

  11. d. Observational Learning • Beliefs based on observing others like self and / or visible physical results • application: • point out others’ experiences, physical changes • identify role models to emulate

  12. e. Reinforcement • Responses to person’s behavior that increase or decrease changes of recurrence • application: • provide incentives, rewards, praise • decrease possibility of negative response that deter positive changes

  13. f. Social Support • Defined: communications process that occurs between people, between providers of support and recipients of support, that functions very specifically to help people reduce the uncertainty they face (Albrecht & Adelman, 1987).

  14. 4. Diffusion • Relative advantage • Compatibility • Complexity • Trial-ability • Observability

  15. a. Relative Advantage • Degree to which change is preferable to status quo or competing behaviors • application: • point out unique benefits of change: convenience, time saving, prestige, etc.

  16. b. Compatibility • How consistent new behavior is with values, experience, and needs • application: • tailor new behavior for the intended audience’s values, norms, and situation

  17. c. Complexity • How difficult new behavior is to understand and / or use • application: • create behavior to be accomplished, easy to perform and understand

  18. d. Trial-ability • Extent to which the new behavior can be experimented with before a commitment to adopt is required • application: • provide opportunities to try on a limited basis with incentives

  19. e. Observability • Extent to which the new behavior provides tangible or visible results • application: • give an expected time • assure feasibility of desired results

  20. In Summary: • All these theories are different views of why people do what they do • these models are complementary • some models may be more relevant than others depending on the circumstances and behavior • all are useful for asking questions about what influences people

  21. Specific Determinants of Behavior

  22. Which Determines Behavior: • Knowledge and skills? • Perceived risk? • Attitudes / Beliefs? • Perceived consequences? • Self-efficacy? • Other relevant characteristics?

  23. 1. Knowledge and Skills • What do people know about the program? • Do they know how to do the target behavior? • Can they access the program or service? • What do we need to do to ensure they receive needed information?

  24. 2. Perceived Risk • Does the target audience believe they are personally susceptible or vulnerable? • How severe do they perceive the condition to be?

  25. 3. Attitudes • What are the attitudes of the target audience? • How do they feel about the program, service, or target behavior? • Are there rumors in the community which would affect their attitude?

  26. 4. Perceived Consequences • What does the target audience believe they will gain if they adopt the target behavior? • What does the target audience believe they will lose if they adopt the behavior? • How can we address this situation?

  27. 5. Self-efficacy • Defined: An individual’s belief that he/she can do a desired behavior • Do consumers believe they can adopt the target behavior? • ……successfully?

  28. 6. Social Norms • Defined: standards of behavior for attitude accepted as usual practice • What do consumers perceive the norms to be?

  29. 7. Intentions • What does the audience already plan to do about the new behavior? • How ready are they to change?

  30. 8. Demographics • Race / Ethnicity • Where they live • Age / Gender • Education • Religion • Marital status • Income • Sexual orientation • Occupation

  31. 9. Other Social-Psychological Determinants • Self concept / Self esteem - hopes, fears, aspirations • Occupational stress • Religiosity • Recreation and leisure • Social support networks • Media habits - what they watch, listen, read - how often? where? when?

  32. In Conclusion… • How do we apply all these theories and specific determinants to our audience? • turn them into questions… • Does self-efficacy affect behavior X? • If so, why? If not, why not? • make comparisons among groups… • rethink the marketing principles with these determinants in mind…what happens? • find out what matters: do the research…