National Training Collaborative for Social Marketing Session Seven Behavioral Determinant and Theories
Session Objectives • Describe factors that influence behavior • Describe how identification of doers / nondoers can influence decisions • List reasons why research to identify behavioral determinants is important • Identify potential determinants relevant to their own intervention programs
Questions to Address • What determines behavior? • How do we explain behavior?
1. Levels of Influence (adapted from Glanz & Rimer, 1995) • Individual Factors: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, personality • Interpersonal Factors: social identity, support, roles • Institutional Factors: rules, regulations, informal structures • Community Factors: social networks, norms • Public Policy: regulations/laws
2. Stages of Change Model(Prochaska, et. al., 1992) • Precontemplation - unaware of problem • Contemplation - thinking about change in near future • Decision / Determination - making a plan to change • Action - implementation of specific action plans • Maintenance - repetition of desired behavior
3. Social Learning / Social Cognition (see Glanz & Rimer, 1995) • Behavioral capability • Expectations • Self-efficacy • Observational learning • Reinforcement • Social support
a. Behavioral Capability • Knowledge and skills to influence behavior • application: • provide information and training about new behavior
b. Expectations • Beliefs about likely results of new behavior • application: • incorporate information about likely results of behavior in advance
c. Self-efficacy • Defined: confidence to take action • Also known as “personal control” • Dimensions: • internal / external • globality / specificity • stability / instability • Illusions of control • point out strengths • use persuasion and encouragement • approach behavior change in small steps
d. Observational Learning • Beliefs based on observing others like self and / or visible physical results • application: • point out others’ experiences, physical changes • identify role models to emulate
e. Reinforcement • Responses to person’s behavior that increase or decrease changes of recurrence • application: • provide incentives, rewards, praise • decrease possibility of negative response that deter positive changes
f. Social Support • Defined: communications process that occurs between people, between providers of support and recipients of support, that functions very specifically to help people reduce the uncertainty they face (Albrecht & Adelman, 1987).
4. Diffusion • Relative advantage • Compatibility • Complexity • Trial-ability • Observability
a. Relative Advantage • Degree to which change is preferable to status quo or competing behaviors • application: • point out unique benefits of change: convenience, time saving, prestige, etc.
b. Compatibility • How consistent new behavior is with values, experience, and needs • application: • tailor new behavior for the intended audience’s values, norms, and situation
c. Complexity • How difficult new behavior is to understand and / or use • application: • create behavior to be accomplished, easy to perform and understand
d. Trial-ability • Extent to which the new behavior can be experimented with before a commitment to adopt is required • application: • provide opportunities to try on a limited basis with incentives
e. Observability • Extent to which the new behavior provides tangible or visible results • application: • give an expected time • assure feasibility of desired results
In Summary: • All these theories are different views of why people do what they do • these models are complementary • some models may be more relevant than others depending on the circumstances and behavior • all are useful for asking questions about what influences people
Which Determines Behavior: • Knowledge and skills? • Perceived risk? • Attitudes / Beliefs? • Perceived consequences? • Self-efficacy? • Other relevant characteristics?
1. Knowledge and Skills • What do people know about the program? • Do they know how to do the target behavior? • Can they access the program or service? • What do we need to do to ensure they receive needed information?
2. Perceived Risk • Does the target audience believe they are personally susceptible or vulnerable? • How severe do they perceive the condition to be?
3. Attitudes • What are the attitudes of the target audience? • How do they feel about the program, service, or target behavior? • Are there rumors in the community which would affect their attitude?
4. Perceived Consequences • What does the target audience believe they will gain if they adopt the target behavior? • What does the target audience believe they will lose if they adopt the behavior? • How can we address this situation?
5. Self-efficacy • Defined: An individual’s belief that he/she can do a desired behavior • Do consumers believe they can adopt the target behavior? • ……successfully?
6. Social Norms • Defined: standards of behavior for attitude accepted as usual practice • What do consumers perceive the norms to be?
7. Intentions • What does the audience already plan to do about the new behavior? • How ready are they to change?
8. Demographics • Race / Ethnicity • Where they live • Age / Gender • Education • Religion • Marital status • Income • Sexual orientation • Occupation
9. Other Social-Psychological Determinants • Self concept / Self esteem - hopes, fears, aspirations • Occupational stress • Religiosity • Recreation and leisure • Social support networks • Media habits - what they watch, listen, read - how often? where? when?
In Conclusion… • How do we apply all these theories and specific determinants to our audience? • turn them into questions… • Does self-efficacy affect behavior X? • If so, why? If not, why not? • make comparisons among groups… • rethink the marketing principles with these determinants in mind…what happens? • find out what matters: do the research…