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drug receptors and pharmacodynamics n.
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DRUG RECEPTORS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS PowerPoint Presentation
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DRUG RECEPTORS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS

DRUG RECEPTORS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS

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DRUG RECEPTORS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS

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  1. DRUG RECEPTORS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS

  2. PAUL EHRLICH 1845-1945 Drugs cannot act unless they are bound to receptors

  3. PROTEIN TARGETS FOR DRUG BINDING 4 main kinds of regulatory protein are commonly involved as primary drug targets • Receptors • Enzymes methotrexate-dihydrofolate reductase • Carrier molecules (transporters) (SSRI, TCA) • Ion channels local anesthetics-voltage sensitive Na channel

  4. Pharmacodynamics Is what the drug does to the body. Interaction of drugs with cellular proteins, such as receptors or enzymes, to control changes in physiological function of particular organs. • Drug-Receptor Interactions • Binding • Dose-Response • Effect • Signal Transduction • Mechanism of action, Pathways

  5. PHARMACODYNAMICS 2 • Receptors largely determine the quantitative relations between dose or concentration of drug and pharmacologic effects • Receptors are responsible for selectivity of drug action, the molecular size, shape and electrical charge of a drug determine its binding characteristics • Receptors mediate the actions of both pharmacologic agonists and antagonists

  6. Drug receptor • A protein macromolecule produced by the body that was designed by nature to interact with an endogenous molecule (ligand), but which will also interact with a drug molecule, if it has the correct chemical structure

  7. Levels of protein structure Primary→ sequence of aa that make up the pp chain Secondary →interaction of + charged H atoms with – charges O atoms on C from the same polypeptide chain Tertiary → interaction of aa that are relatively far apart on the protein backbone Quaternary → binding interaction among 2 or more independent protein subunits

  8. Some receptor characteristics… • Ability to recognize specific molecular shapes: only a limited group of neurochemicals or drugs can bind to initiate a cellular response

  9. Endogenous compounds act on their receptors Neurotransmitter Neuropeptides Hormones Ions

  10. Best fit -- highest affinity Some fit; no cellular effect; block receptor preventing its activation by drug or neurochemical or hormone The ability of a drug to activate a receptor and generate a cellular response is its efficacy

  11. Some receptor characteristics… Binding of ligand is only temporary Ligand binding produces physical changes in protein conformation, initiating intracellular changes that ultimately generates behavioral effects. Receptors have a life cycle (as other proteins do). Receptors can be modified in numbers (long-term regulation) and in sensitivity. • Receptors can up-regulate: increase in numbers (chronic absence of agonist) • Down-regulate: decrease in numbers (chronic presence of agonist)

  12. PHARMACODYNAMICS AGONISTS & ANTAGONISTS • Receptors mediate the actions of both pharmacologic agonists and antagonists. Some drugs and many natural ligands such as hormones and neurotransmitters activate the receptor to signal as a direct result of binding to it. Agonists (Full agonists, Partial agonists, Inverse agonists) Antagonists bind to receptors but do not activate generation of a signal, they interfere with the ability of an agonist to activate the receptor.

  13. Agonist

  14. There are 3 types of agonist... • Full agonist: Produces the maximal responce • Partial agonist (agonist-antagonist or mixed agonist-antagonist):produces the submaximal responce *In the presence of full agonist, a partial agonist will act like an antagonist because it prevents the full agonist to bind the receptor

  15. An antagonist occupies but does not activate the drug receptor

  16. KD=k-1/k+1

  17. Types of drug antagonism • chemical antagonism (interaction in solution) • pharmacokinetic antagonism (one drug affecting the absorption, metabolism or excretion of the other) • competitive antagonism (both drugs binding to the same receptors); the antagonism may be reversible or irreversible • interruption of receptor-effector linkage • physiological antagonism (two agents producing opposing physiological effects)

  18. 0 0

  19. THE 2 STATE MODEL

  20. BINDING WITH RECEPTORS BONDS • Ionic bonds +++ • Hydrogen bonds ++ • Dispersion forces (Van der Waals) + • Covalent bonds ++++

  21. BONDS 2

  22. BONDS 3

  23. Reversible antagonists briefly occupy their receptors

  24. Inhibition caused by reversible antagonist overcome by adequate concentration of agonist at receptor site Reversible antagonist Agonist RESPONSE

  25. COMPETITIVE INHIBITION

  26. Irreversible antagonists permanently occupy (bond covalently) to their receptors

  27. NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITION

  28. COVALENT BONDS

  29. Dose-response relationships • The relationship between the concentration of drug at the receptor site and the magnitude of the response is called the dose-response relationship • Depending on the purpose of the the studies, this relatioship can be described in terms of a graded (continous) response or a quantal (all-or-none) response

  30. graded dose-response relationship • In this relationship; percentage of a maximal response is plotted against the log dose of the drug • Illustrates the relatioship between drug dose, receptor occupancy and the magnitude of the resulting physiologic effect • It follows from receptor theory that the maximal response to a drug occurs when all receptors that can be occupied by that drug

  31. RELATION BETWEEN DRUG CONCENTRATION AND RESPONSE

  32. Dose-response (dose-effect) curve Half maximal response indicates that 50% of the reseptors are occupied Maximal response indicates that, all receptors are occupied by drug EC 50 Median effective dose

  33. drug efficacy • The ability of a drug to elicit a maximal response • Also called intrinsic activity of a drug Therapeutic efficacy, or effectiveness, is the capacity of a drug to produce an effect and refers to the maximum such effect. For example, if drug A can produce a therapeutic effect that cannot be obtained with drug B, however much of drug B is given, then drug A has the higher therapeutic efficacy. Differences in therapeutic efficacy are of great clinical importance.

  34. RELATION BETWEEN DRUG CONCENTRATION AND RESPONSE

  35. RELATION BETWEEN DRUG CONCENTRATION AND RESPONSE A agonist response in the absence of an antagonist B low concentration antagonist C larger concentration of antagonist D and E spare receptors have been used up

  36. quantal dose-response relationship • The response elicited with each dose of a drug is described in terms of the cumulative percentage subjects exhibiting a defined all-or-none effect and is plotted against the log dose of the drug • (prevention of convulsions, arrhythmia or death,relief of headache)

  37. dose-response curves % of population tested

  38. QUANTAL DOSE-EFFECT PLOTS

  39. ED50: median effective dose • ED50 (median effective dose): • The dose of a drug that produces a specified, desired effect in 50% of the animal population tested

  40. Quantal dose-response relationships. The dose-response curves for a therapeutic effect (sleep) and a toxic effect (death) of a drug are compared. The ratio of the LD50 to the ED50 is the therapeutic index. The ratio of the LD1 to the ED99 is the certain safety factor. ED = effective dose; and LD = lethal dose.

  41. Toxic levels Drug plasma concen-tration Therapeutic levels Subtherapeutic levels

  42. Therapeutic index (TI) TI = TD 50 ED50 The ratio of the dose producing a specified toxic effect in 50% of the test population (TD50)to the dose producing a specified desired effect in 50% of the test population (ED50)