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Health Disorders

Health Disorders

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Health Disorders

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  1. Health Disorders FACS Standard 4.3.4 Herr, Judy. Working with Young Children. The Goodheart-Wilcox Co., Inc. 2008.

  2. Health Disorders • Chronic health need – an illness the persists over a period of time – a lifetime or several months • Will have cycles of good health and cycles of bad health

  3. Allergies • Up to 50% of people have mild or severe allergies • May begin at any age • Only a small percentage of children’s allergies have been diagnosed • Are reactions of the body to a substance in the environment

  4. Offending substance is called an allergen • Exposure to the allergen can cause: rashes, swelling, sneezing, and other reactions • Ask parents at enrollment if their child has any known allergies

  5. 4 categories of allergens: • Inhalants – airborne substances that are inhaled • Animal dandruff, dust, feathers, fungi spores, molds, and plant pollens • Need to remove classroom pets • Ingestants –foods, drugs, or anything taken through the mouth • Contactants – things that make contact with the body, through touch • Injectables – chemicals or drugs injected into the body

  6. Ingestants –foods, drugs, or anything taken through the mouth • Common foods include: Beans, berries, chocolate, cinnamon, citrus fruits, corn products, cols drinks, eggs, fish, shellfish, milk, tomatoes, buts, and wheat

  7. Other possible causes: Fabric dyes, fragrances and colorings added to soap and detergents • Common drugs include: aspirin, penicillin, and sulfa drugs

  8. Contactants – things that make contact with the body, through touch • Common substances include: cosmetics, some detergents, wool, and starch • Common reactions: red rash and itching

  9. Injectables – chemicals or drugs injected into the body • Common substances: penicillin, venom from bees or wasps • Some insect bites can be FATAL • Redness and swelling around the wound indicates a mild allergy

  10. Swelling of the entire body and trouble breathing indicates a severe allergy – SEEK MEDICAL HELP ASAP; could be FATAL

  11. Some allergies are seasonal

  12. Arthritis • Inflammation causing painful swelling of the joints and surrounding tissues • Most common form of juvenile arthritis • Rheumatoid arthritis • Causes fatigue, loss of appetite • Aching joints • Stiffness of joints

  13. Children with arthritis find it hard to stay in one position very long without pain • More painful in the morning than in the afternoon • Regular, but moderate exercise • When disease most active, children will need more rest

  14. After age 10, 60-70% of affected children affected are from juvenile arthritis

  15. Asthma • Chronic disorder of the airways • Symptoms: coughing, wheezing, rapid or labored breathing, shortness of breath, chest tightness • When symptoms appear they may last a few minutes, hours, or even weeks • Some children may outgrow asthma as they grow; others never do

  16. Asthma attack occurs when airways are inflamed OR swollen and irritated • Most commonly caused when exposed to an allergen; may also occur when exposed to hot or cold; overexertion or excessive exercise • Treated with medications – fast acting inhaler or nebulizer machine

  17. If the medication does not relieve the symptoms, this is a medical EMERGENCY – CALL 911 • Depending on the severity of the disease, children may need medication daily • Be sure to ask about asthma when enrolling the student and ask parents procedures they want facility to follow

  18. Cystic Fibrosis • Hereditary disease occurring almost from birth involving persistent and serious lung infections, failure to gain weight, and loose, foul-smelling stools • Some symptoms caused by a thick mucus produced by the sweat glands that interferes with the digestive and respiratory systems

  19. Children with this disease rarely enroll in child care programs because of the risk of lung infections and their need for close supervision of a doctor • If children with this disease are enrolled, they need lots of liquids and frequent rest

  20. Diabetes • Juvenile diabetes – hereditary disease • Symptoms: frequent urination, loss of weight, constant hunger, itching (especially around groin), slowing healing cuts and bruises; some children may show NO signs • Careful diet extremely important – balance of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals necessary

  21. In most cases, children will need insulin injections – prescribed by doctor and given by parents • Balance physical activity, insulin, and diet • Parents and doctor – devise a plan • In an insulin reaction, body needs sugar ASAP to keep from slipping into shock or a coma

  22. Keep fast sources of sugar – orange juice, candy – with you at all times • If the child passes out because of insulin reaction, call 911 – this is a MEDICAL EMERGENCY

  23. Epilepsy • Convulsive disorder caused by damage to the brain • Chemical rhythms of the central nervous system disturbed • Affects about 1% of the population • NOT A DISEASE

  24. Can cause varying degrees of reactions or seizures • Petit mal • May go unnoticed • Signs: fluttering eyelids, frozen posture, staring, temporary stop of activity • May last 5 – 10 seconds • Most do not require medical attention

  25. Grand mal • Child will lose consciousness; will be confused when they awaken; seizure will not be remembered; children will get up and resume activity • May jerk, thrash, or become stiff • May be injured by hitting things or biting the tongue

  26. Treated primarily with drugs – either prevent or reduce frequency of seizures • Medications often cause serious side effects – restlessness and lethargic behavior

  27. To help a child, as the teacher you should: • Leave the child on the floor • Clear the area of anything that would injure the child • Remain calm • Cradle the child’s head in your lap; avoid any restraining movements with child laying on their side

  28. If the convulsion does not sop within 2 minutes, call for emergency medical help • When child regain consciousness, have child remain lying down, placing a blanket over them and allowing them to sleep • Call the child’ doctor and family to tell them about the seizure and ask for advise

  29. Hemophilia • Genetic blood disorder in which the blood cannot clot normally • Extreme internal bleeding and bruising can result from a simple bump and cause joint pain and extreme pains that require a hospital stay • Real threat – DEATH caused by internal bleeding of vital organs or by blood flowing into air passages

  30. Decide with the parents which toys the child play on and tag both indoor and out door equipment • Be sure to know what to do if the child is injured • Carefully watch the child at play to prevent accidents

  31. Leukemia • Form of cancer affecting the blood-forming organs of the body and the blood • The sharp rise in white blood cells in the bloodstream destroys the bone marrow and the number of healthy white blood cells decreases • Signs and symptoms: bleeding, fever, infection, weight loss

  32. Can be fatal • Children usually treated with chemotherapy • These children are encouraged to participate in class – quality of life – focus of caregivers

  33. Cognitive Disabilities • Intellectual functioning significantly below the development milestones for children that age • Difficult to site cause – can be caused by genetics or chromosomal disorder, or prenatal or postnatal injuries, or environmental conditions

  34. Mental retardation • form of cognitive disability • Intellectual functioning significantly lower than average • Has varying degrees of severity and as many potential causes • Down’s syndrome – most common

  35. Down’s Syndrome • Chromosome disorder • Most identifiable form of mental retardation • Have distinct physical features – small round head with flattened mid-face, slightly pugged nose, large tongue; slightly slanted eyes, small ears, and short fingers; and other physical problems

  36. Learning Disabilities • Having a problem with one or more basic skills of learning • Common traits: trouble following directions, poor memory skills, can’t remember a story just read to them, trouble storing, processing, and producing information, trouble identifying or reproducing numbers and letters, poor eye-hand coordination

  37. Traits may appear in various patterns

  38. Attention Deficit Disorder • 5-10% of children have trouble focusing and staying on task and are easily distracted • Overactive, restless, impulsive – attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – can become hostile and fail to follow classroom limits

  39. ADHD affects more boys than girls; for every girl, there are 5 boys affected • Cause is unknown • Can be treated with drugs that have a calming effect and may receive behavior therapy

  40. Social or Emotional Impairment • Behavioral disorder – condition that affects and individual’s social and emotional functions • Challenges include: attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, or conduct disorder • Most common condition - autism

  41. Autism • Unable to interact with others socially • Language development atypical • Display ritualistic and compulsive behaviors, although different from child to child • First noticeable at 2 ½ years of age • More boys than girls • May also have mental retardation

  42. One of first signs is resistance to being hugged or cuddles as an infant • When held, will not mold to holder’s body; fail to make eye contact or use nonverbal communication • Self-stimulating behaviors – rocking, head flapping • Treat others like lifeless objects

  43. Simple changes in routine can cause violent temper tantrum • Working with these children is challenging • Consistency is needed in classroom routines and environment • Use simple and direct speech

  44. Classroom focus – promote language, appropriate behavior, interacting with others • Must form partnership with family and other professionals working with the child

  45. Integrating Children with Special Needs • The number of special needs children that can be accommodated by a child care program depends on the teacher’s training and experience, the ratio of adults to children, and the specific needs of the children • Regardless of child’s needs, they should be grouped with children based on developmental level, not age

  46. To work with these children, seek help from specialist • Provide constant feedback to parents about behavior and progress • Prepare children when a special needs child will be joining the group

  47. Gifted Children • Needs are often neglected in traditional education • Spend time doing things they already know • Giftedness defined in many ways • Traditionally based on intelligence scores

  48. Best defined as one who possesses exceptional skills in one or more of six following areas: • Creative or productive thinking • General intellectual ability • Leadership ability • Psychomotor ability • Specific academic aptitude • Visual or performing arts

  49. 3-5% of children could be gifted • They need to be identified to receive best education for them

  50. Identification • Difficult to identify a gifted child • No single test, checklist or observation point will tell • Characteristics of a gifted child: • Constant curiosity about many subjects • Social and emotional behavior equals or exceeds that of children the same age • Independent and motivated