DISASTERS AND EMERGENCIES PSUPT ORLANDO OBISPO YEBRA JR (DSC) MPA, CESE/PESE
Sudden condition or state of affairs calling for immediate action. Emergency - is simply something that happens suddenly, usually without warning, causing much suffering and loss. Disaster Crisis - A dangerous or critical moment of development
Important Areas in Crisis Management: • Theories of Crisis Management • The 4P Crisis Management Model • The CM Organizational Structure • The delineation of responsibilities • Three-Tiered Defense System • Procedures/Actions during crisis
CRISIS MANAGEMENT Refers to measures to identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources needed to anticipate, prevent, and/or resolve a crisis, disaster, threat to public safety or acts of terrorism.
DEFINITION CRISIS from the Greek word krisis, It means "to separate." • a turning point in the Progress of an affair or a series of events EMERGENCY • sudden condition or state of affairs calling for Immediate action
CRISIS Progressive Sequence of events Build Up of Instability Growth of Tension Turning Point Decision Change Continuity Survival
EMERGENCY Sudden and/or Event (s) or Unforeseen State of Affairs Immediate Response Correction Mitigation Remedy Recovery Restoration CRISIS EMERGENCY
“Crisis is a crucial event or situation requiring a special response to assure an acceptable solution”
CRISIS ISCHARACTERIZED BY: • Time Compression • Necessitates rapid response • Necessitates unexpected response • Normal activities carry on
CRISIS ISCHARACTERIZED BY: • Threats to - Life - Property - Reputations - Relationships - Operations • Demands Accurate and Risk Effective Action
CRISIS NEEDS . . . • Organizational Structure Different from Organizational Standard
CRISIS NEEDS . . . • Management System that Facilitates Decision Making Process
CRISIS NEEDS . . . • Special Analysis, Planning, and Implementation of Crisis Response Plans and capabilities. .
CRISIS NEEDS • Special and Specific Legal Considerations • Special and Specific Response to Media, Public • Special Emphasis of Identifying Victims • Actual • Perceived • Extended
REFERENCES • Crisis Management Manual (Nov 2000) • Police Operational Procedures • E.O. 309 Mandating NPOC to create Crisis Management Committees (CMC) at all levels • Sec. 116 R.A. 7160 LGC Creating local POCs • E.O. 773 January 5, 2009 Further reorganizing the POC
CRISIS MANAGEMENT POLICIES • Terrorism as a Criminal Act • Peaceful Means and other Options in the Resolution of a Crisis • No Compromise with Terrorists • Safety of Victims and Civilians • Prompt Handling of a Crisis at the Lowest Level Possible • Coordinated Government Response to a Crisis • Respect for Human Rights • Handling Hostage Situations
TWO TYPES OF CRISIS 2. NATURAL 1. MAN-MADE FORTUITOUS EVENT ≠ FORCE MAJEURE CRISIS ≠ CRISES
MAN-MADE CRISIS/EMERGENCIES • Civil Disturbance • 2. Revolt 3. Revolution • 4. Border Incident • 5. War • Kidnapping • Hijacking • Hostage-Taking • Terrorists Activities • Attacks/Raids on government installations/ vital facilities.
NATURAL CRISIS/EMERGENCIES Fire Marine/Air Disasters Structural Collapse Hazardous Spills Utilities failure (Power, Water, Telephone) Nuclear Accidents Food scarcity/famine Fuel shortage Pestilence/epidemic Floods Volcanic Eruption Earthquake Typhoons Drought
Organization of NPOC • The Director-General of the National Security Council (NSC) • The Executive Secretary • The Secretary of Foreign Affairs • The Secretary of National Defense (SND) • The Secretary of Justice • The Secretary of Agriculture • The Secretary of Agrarian Reform • The Secretary of Public Works • The Secretary of Social Welfare and Development • The Secretary of Health • The Secretary of Trade and Industry • The Secretary of Transportation • The Secretary of Education • The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources • The Press Secretary • The Chairman of the Dangerous Drugs Board • The Chairman of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples • The Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process • The Director-General, Presidential Management Staff • The Director-General, Philippine Information Agency • The Chairperson of the Presidential Anti-Graft Commission • The Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (CSAFP) • The Chief of the Philippine National Police (PNP) • The Director of the National Bureau of Investigation • Three (3) Representatives from the private sector who shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines. Secretary DILG Secretary DND Secretary DSWD Secretary DOJ Chief, PNP Chief of Staff, AFP Other concerned cabinet members
FUNCTIONS of the Crisis Management Committee • Formulate crisis management procedures • Integrate and orchestrate actions to prevent and control crisis incidents • Address crisis situations arising from peace and order and internal security concern
CMC Chairmanship and Vice Chairmanship RPOC Appointed by the SILG CMC PPOC Provincial Governor CMC C/MPOC City/Municipal Mayor CMC
Composition of Lower Level CMC • Lower level CMC is a replication of National CMC • Lower level CMC is composed of - Political leadership - Military/Police - NGOs
GENERAL TASKING: MAN-MADE CRISIS/EMERGENCIES - Peace and Order Council(POC) at the appropriate level shall primarily act on the crisis situation. NATURAL CRISIS/EMERGENCIES - Crisis as a result of natural disasters or calamities, the National Disaster Coordinating Council(NDCC) and its subordinate entities shall primarily address the problem.
LOCAL CHIEF EXECUTIVES’ DUAL ROLE Chairman of the local government Crisis Management Committees (CMCs) Chairman of the Local Disaster Coordinating Councils (LDCCs)
Four (4) P CRISIS MANAGEMENT MODEL Proactive Phase – designed to predict or prevent the probability of occurrence of crises at the same time prepare to handle them when they occur • Prediction • Prevention • Preparation Reactive Phase – the actual execution or implementation of any contingency plan when a crisis situation occurs despite the pro-active measures • Performance
PREDICTION • Foretelling the likelihood of crisis, through: • Continuous assessment of all possible threats • and threat groups. • Analysis of developing or reported events and incidents. • Updated inputs from intelligence reports
PREVENTION Institution of passive and active security measures Remedy or solution of destabilizing factors or security flaws to such crisis or emergency Vigilance and alertness to signs or manifestations of developing crisis or emergency Establishment of alert systems
PREPARATION • Pre-CRISIS actions and measures undertaken to avert or minimize loss of lives and properties: • a. Community organizing, • b. Training, • c. Planning, • d. Stockpiling, • e. Hazard mapping, • f. Public information and education initiatives g. Simulated drills
PERFORM a. Initial Action Securing the scene Establishing perimeter security Evacuating innocent civilians Preventing escape of perpetrators b. Action It begins as soon as the On-Scene Command Post (OSCP) is established and the Tactical Intervention, Service Support Units, Negotiation Team and Public Affairs personnel arrived and are deployed c. Post Action Begins as soon as the perpetrators surrender, or when they are captured or neutralized and the crisis situation is deemed clear. Restore normalcy and bring responsible to court
THREE-TIERED DEFENSE SYSTEM (Three Lines of Defense) A. INTELLIGENCE • TARGET • HARDENING • INCIDENT • MANAGEMENT
“ To know the enemy and identify their potential targets ” Identification of potential terrorist targets Identification of terrorist organization/profile LGEs to organize their own intelligence collector Surveillance and records/document exploitation Pre-emptive strikes on lairs Manhunt and arrest of terrorists Establishment of communication linkages with community Public awareness and Education on the Terrorist and the Bomb Intelligence sharing and fusion with other agencies Designation of Security Officer Monitoring of ports of entry and foreigners in the country Text messages, TELECOMS and Patrol 117 INTELLIGENCE TARGET HARDENING INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
Making it difficult to terrorist to succeed in their targets ” TARGET HARDENING • Enhance physical and personnel security measures thru: • Deployment of PNP/AFP scty personnel • Enhancement of technological eqpmt • Conduct of scty survey and inspection • Strengthening of physical scty measures • Development of security consciousness • Conduct rehearsals/drills/dry runs • Convene the CMC • Review and implement IA/CPSP • Designation of Incident Manager and organization of Crisis Mgmt team • Community partnership
“ To manage effectively the incident and mitigate the effects of the terror attack” INCIDENT MANAGEMENT • LGEs will take the lead role • Activate Crisis Management Team • Activate CMC • Activate On-Scene Command Post • Secure and render safe the blast site • Evacuate and provide first aid (MEDEVAC Plan) • Investigate, gather evidence and arrest suspects • Establish commo linkages • Manage information (Media Relations) • Manage augmentation and assistance • Traffic and crowd control • Put out fires • Trauma management
4P CMM 3 TDS INTELLIGENCE Prediction Prevention Preparation Perform TARGET HARDENING INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
Important “During times of confusion and chaos, the first thing those people who were affected want to see is a quick government response that would bring back normalcy in the least possible time”
More important “A quick government response to critical incidents can only be attained if all those who are involve know and understand their role in the over-all plan”
POC CMC GROUND COMMANDER NEGOTIATION GROUP OPERATION GROUP SERVICE SUPPORT GROUP PUBLIC AFFAIRS GROUP INVEST/LEGAL TEAMS NEGOTIATION TEAM SECURITY ELEMENTS PUBLIC INFO TEAM INTEL TEAM LIAISON TEAM TACTICAL ACTION/ INTERVENTION ELEMENTS MEDIA CONTROL TEAM MEDICALTEAM CIVIL RELATIONS TEAM COMMEL TEAM UTILITIES LIAISON TEAM FIRE-FIGHTING LOGISTICS TEAM ADMIN TEAM
BASIC QUESTIONS THAT MUST BE ANSWERED AND KNOWN TO ALL 1. Who is in charge? 2. Where is the operations center located? 3. What will the method of communication be?
DETERMINE LOGISTICS REQUIRED Where should coordination be made? Who has equipment available on short notice? Who can contribute to resolution of the crisis?
ACTIONS DURING CRISIS 1. CONTAIN the incident 2. ISOLATE the affected area 3. EVACUATE person at risk 4. APPROPRIATE POLICE ACTION 5. RESTORE NORMALCY/REHAB
CONTAINMENT • First response procedures • Identify & locate the incident • Identify immediate extent and potential risk of the problem • Secure the scene & establishing perimeter security • Monitoring the progress of the incident • Establish an Operation Center • Establish On Scene Command Post
ISOLATE THE IMPACT AREA • Establish a security zone • Identify access for each CM Components • Monitoring the progress of the incident • Gathering of information • Clear areas for possible evacuation
EVACUATION • Evacuation procedures • Establish triage area • Management of Casualties • Identify temporary mortuary area
THREE LEVELS OF COMMAND STRATEGIC OPERATIONAL TACTICAL
COMMANDERS IN THREE LEVELS CMC/OVER-ALL COMMANDER GROUND COMMANDER TACTICAL COMMANDER
CMC/ Over-all Command (Strategic) ROLE Senior individual in command who sets the strategic aim for dealing with the incident