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AFLATOXIN. Geneizzel Gotuato Maria Angelica Duque. Outline of the Discussion. Aflatoxin. produced by Aspergillus molds probably the most well known mycotoxin , and the most researched. very toxic and highly carcinogenic. Aflatoxin.

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  1. AFLATOXIN GeneizzelGotuato Maria Angelica Duque

  2. Outline of the Discussion

  3. Aflatoxin • produced by Aspergillus molds • probably the most well known mycotoxin, and the most researched. • very toxic and highly carcinogenic.

  4. Aflatoxin Over four billion people in developing countries are repeatedly exposed to aflatoxins, contributing to greater than 40 percent of the disease burden in these countries. 

  5. Toxins present • Aflatoxins B: This group includes aflatoxin B1 and B2. Aflatoxin B1 is the most common aflatoxin, as well as the most toxic and carcinogenic. • Aflatoxins G: This group includes aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 • Aflatoxins M: This group includes aflatoxins M1 and M2. These aflatoxins are metabolic products which are found in the urine and milk produced by animals which have been given feed with aflatoxins in it

  6. Aflatoxin B1 Toxins present

  7. Aflatoxin G Toxins present

  8. Aflatoxin M Toxins present

  9. Aflatoxin in Food The American Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are affected by mycotoxins. Of these mycotoxins, aflatoxins are the biggest problem.

  10. Aflatoxin in Food Corn, cottonseed and peanuts are the crops most at risk of being contaminated by aflatoxins. Aspergillus also commonly grows on beans, rice, tree nuts and wheat. It grows less often on other grains and nuts.

  11. Aflatoxin in Food If animals are given feed contaminated with aflatoxins then aflatoxinmycotoxins can end up in milk, eggs and meat. Aflatoxin M1 and M, which are often found in cow's milk, are metabolites produced by animals which have eaten aflatoxins.

  12. Toxicity • In humans, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem in China and Kenya. • The mortality rate of HCC is more than 95% and killed 125 from the 317 cases of poisoning in China(2004).

  13. Toxicity • In animals, the effects of aflatoxin are depending on the sex, age, species and even animal breed.

  14. Aflatoxicosis is not contagious . Aflatoxicosisdamages the liver more than any other organ. Aflatoxinmycotoxins also suppress the immune system.

  15. Symptoms Acute signs • anorexia, depression, epistaxis, ataxia.

  16. Symptoms Chronic signs • reduced feed efficiency, reduced milk production, icterus.

  17. Complications • Liver cancer • Mental impairment • Abdominal Pain • Vomiting • Convulsions • Pulmonary Edema • Hemorrhaging • Coma • Death

  18. Cirrhosis

  19. Acute necrosis

  20. Prevention

  21. Treatment Antidote • activated charcoal • ellagic acid • inducers of some cytochromesP450

  22. Treatment Supportive Care • Monitoring of Liver Function • Dialysis or Blood Transfusions • Treatment of Symptoms

  23. Treatment Inactivation • Concentrated ammonia • Sodium bisulfite

  24. References • http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/2005/9-19/aflatoxin.html • http://delloyd.50megs.com/hazard/aflatoxins_poison.html • www.mycotoxins.info/myco_info/science_moa.html • http://blackmold.awardspace.com/aflatoxin-mycotoxins.html

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