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状语从句. 概念. 一个 ____ 在复合句中用作状语时 , 在语法上叫状语从句。从句由 _____ 或 ________ 引导。 分类: 状语从句可表示 1) ________ 2) _________ 3) _________ 4) _________ 5) _________ 6) _________ 7) _________ 8) _________

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  1. 状语从句

  2. 概念 一个____在复合句中用作状语时,在语法上叫状语从句。从句由_____或________引导。 分类: 状语从句可表示1) ________ 2) _________ 3) _________ 4) _________ 5) _________ 6) _________ 7) _________ 8) _________ 9) _________等 句子 名词词组 连词 地点 时间 目的 原因 结果 条件 行为方式 比较 让步

  3. 一. 引导时间状语从句 1. when, while , as, before, after, until, till, since, ever since, once, as soon as , 2. every time, next/last/each time, the first time, the moment, the minute, the instant 3. hardly…when, no sooner…than, scarcely…when 其中when,till, until,before, after, as soon as,the moment等引导时,如果主句的时态是一般将来时,则从句的时态用一般现在时。

  4. when, while, as • _______________ we were talking, Mr Smiths came in. • _____ they came home, I was cooking dinner. • I was about to go to bed _______ I heard someone knock at the door. • 4. ________ we were watching TV, he was studying. • 5. He is fat _______ his brother is thin. • 6. ______ she sang, tears ran down her face. • Conclusion: • A: 从句为”当……的时候”,从句谓语为延续性动词,主句谓语为非延续性动词(即终止性动词), 三者可通用. • B 当从句的谓语动词为终止性动词,只能用when; 表示”正在那时”, 也只能用when. • C.从句和主句的谓语动词都为延续性动词时, 只能用while; while还可作并列连词,表示”而”. • D.当强调主句和从句的动作同时发生时,只能用as, 译为”一边……一边……; 随着……” While/ As/ When When when While while As

  5. before,after,since before • He had left the town the day ______ she arrived. • It was not long _____ he left his hometown. • I played football _____ I (had) finished my homework • Please tell her I’ll come _______ I do some shopping. • It will not be long _____ we meat each other again. • I__________ (be) at his bedside since he _______ (become) ill. • It _________ (be) two years since we _______ (begin) to use this machine. before after after before have been became is/ has been began Conclusion: 1.before引导的从句是过去式, 主句是过去时或过去完成时;. 主句为过去时,after从句可用一般过去时代替过去完成时.since从句用过去时态, 主句一般用现在完成时. It is/ has been+一段时间+since从句 “自从…已经…” It was/ won’t be +一段时间+before从句 “过了…才...”

  6. till 与until: 1. He lived with his parents ________ he graduated from college. 2. Not ____ he told me did I know the truth. 3. The children ___________ (will come) home until/ till it’s dark. 4. It was _________ the war was over that he returned to his land. till/ until until won’t come not until Conclusion: 1.位于句首时.只能用until, 不用till. 2. not…until可改写为: It is/ was not until… that强调句. 3. not until放在句首,主句谓语要部分倒装。

  7. 一…就… The moment/ minute/ As soon as • _______________________he saw the monster, he turned pale. • The spy had _________ returned home than he was told to go to another country. • We had ____________returned home when it rained. • ____________ had we begun when we told to stop. • ill. no sooner hardly/scarcely Hardly/ Scarcely Conclusion: • hardly…when, no sooner…than, scarcely…when引导,从句用过去完成时,主句用一般过去时。 • 否定词hardly, scarely和no sooner位于句首时,从句要部分倒装。

  8. 二. 地点状语从句: where, anywhere, everywhere. You would let your children play where you can see them.

  9. 三. 原因状语从句: because, as, since, for Conclusion: • because语气最强,强调原因,既可以放在句首,也可以放在句中。回答“why ”的提问。 • since表示“既然”,语气较弱;强调结果,只可以放在句首。 • as语气最弱,强调结果,只可以放在句首。 • for表示通过逻辑推断得出的原因。

  10. 用because, as, since 与for填空: • --Why are you crying, meg? • --- ______ I’ve broken your necklace, mom. • 2. I went to bed early _______ I was tired. • 3. I was not kind to him_______ he was rude. • 4. ________ I had a cold, I was absent from school. • 5. My mother was ill and I sent for Tom, ___ he was a doctor. • 6. _____ we are all here, let’s begin our class. because because because As for Since

  11. 四. 条件状语从句: if, unless, once, as/ so long as(只要), so far as(据我所知…), Conclusion: • 条件状语从句中一般用“主将从现”. • 虚拟语气在If引导的条件状语从句的使用:

  12. If I_______ (be) a bird, I would fly to you. • If you ________ (leave) home a little earlier this morning, you _______________ (catch) the bus. • _____ bad weather stops me, I jog every day. • _______ I arrive at Beijing, I’ll call you. • I’ll go ___________________ you go. • _______ anything important happens, please call me up. were had left would have caught Unless Once as / so long as If

  13. 五、让步状语从句 though, although, even if/ though, no matter…, whatever, however…, whether…or…, as though/although • He went out, ________ it was raining. • _________ they are poor, they buy a great many books. • Child ____ he is, he has learnt advanced mathematics. • _______he is a child, he has learnt advanced mathematics. • No matter ________ happens, don’t be discouraged. • No matter ______ you go, you must write to your parents. • No matter ______ hard he tried, he couldn’t open the door. • No matter ______ you marry in the future, he must be an honest man. Although as Even if what where how who

  14. Conclusion: • Although多用于句首. • as引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管、虽然”。但从句要倒装。句型为: • adj./adv./单数n.(不加冠词)+as+主语+谓语… • Young as she is, she can help her mother. • Fast as he runs, he is the last one.

  15. 六、目的与结果状语从句 so that, in order that so(that), so…that…, such… that…. • He got up early _____________________ he could catch the bus. • ____________ he could catch the bus, he got up early. • I was caught in a shower, ________ all my clothes got wet. • It’s ____ cold _____ the lake has frozen. • There are ______ many books there _____ I don’t know which one to borrow. • It’s _____ good a book _______ I’ve read it again and again. • It was _____ a cold day _____ there was nobody on the street. • ______ cold weather remained for three days _____ I had to stay at home all day long. in order that/ so that In order that so that that so so that that so such that that Such

  16. Conclusion: • 由so that; in order that 引导的目的状语从句中通常用may, could, can等情态动词. • In order that从句可放于句首,而so that 引导的从句只能放在主句之后. • 3. so…that引导结果状语从句时, so常用于修饰形容词或副词, 或用于修饰many, much, little, few.语序为:so+adj./adv. • so+adj.+a/ an+n. • 4. such可修饰任何名词,当其修饰单数可数名词时, 语序为:such+a/ an +(adj.) +n.

  17. 七、比较状语从句: as, than, as…as, not so/as…as, the+比较级… the+比较级 as as • His brother is ____ handsome ____ he (is). • The movie was not ______ good ____ I had expected. • Your bag is twice as expensive as _______ (me). • The driver drives faster _____ he used to (drive). • _________ knowledge we learn, _________ (happy) we will be. so/ as as mine than The more the happier Conclusion: 1.请保持人称代词的格前后一致.如:1, 3. 2. 倍数词须加在比较结构的前面.如:3. 3. 句中相同的成分,如动词,常常省去.如:1, 4.

  18. 八、方式状语从句: as(像,如), as if/ though(仿佛、似乎), just as(就像), as if • He stood up _____ (he wanted ) to leave. • She always talks to me as if she _____ (be) my sister. • He walked slowly as if he _______ (hurt) his leg. were had hurt Conclusion: • as if从句里的主语与动词如和主句一致有时可省略. • as if 从句叙述的情况如果与事实相符合,从句不用虚拟语气,从句时态与主句保持一致. • as if 从句叙述的情况如与事实不相符合,则从句用虚拟语气. • 与一般现在事实不符合:谓语动词 were/did • 与过去事实不符合:谓语动词 had done

  19. 改错: ____ • She was walking on the street while the accident happened. • ________ • 2.I will call you as soon as I will finish my homework. • _______ • 3. After the queen knows it is I that help you run away, she will kill me . ________ • 4. I have finished the composition when the bell rang. ______ while--- when will After– Once have- had Conclusion: 1. 连词的错用. 2. 时间与条件状语从句中的将来时用一般现在时。 4. 主句从句时态本该一致而不一致. 3.连词的错用

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