Techniques for Hazard Recognition Presented By Bill Taylor, CSP Coble, Taylor & Jones Safety Associates www.ctjsafety.com Cary, NC email@example.com
Hazard Recognition The challenge to recognizing hazards is 4-fold.
Hazard Recognition • The challenge: • Safety and health rules not understood
Hazard Recognition • The challenge: • Safety and health rules not understood • Lack of education in hazard recognition
Hazard Recognition • The challenge: • Safety and health rules not understood • Lack of education in hazard recognition • Hazards not controlled and often not recognized
Hazard Recognition • The challenge: • Safety and health rules not understood • Lack of education in hazard recognition • Hazards not controlled and often not recognized • Lack of ownership
Lack of Ownership When employees believe safety is the safety manager’s job they make little effort to identify or report hazards.
To Establish Ownership • Eliminate the “safety cop” • Increase worker involvement • Build a safety culture
Causes of Injuries and Illnesses • Acts of Nature • Acceptable Risks • Deliberately Hurting Oneself • Failures in the Management Systems
Management System Failures • Lack of commitment and leadership • Inadequate training and education • Improper equipment and conditions • Failure to hold accountable • Failure to recognize and control hazards • Lack of enforcement
Hazard Recognition • 1910.6-Incorporation by reference • ANSI • NFPA • CGA • ASTM, and others
NFPA 101-Life Safety Code • Kentucky • California Minimum width of exit access
Hazard Recognition • OSHA • 1926-Construction • 1928-Agriculture • 1915-1918 Maritime • 1910-General industry
Hazard Recognition • Letters of interpretation • Directives • Company rules and policies
For Example, Eyewashes and Showers • 1910.151(c) • “Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use.”
OSHA Standards • How and where should showers and eyewashes be installed? • How often should they be tested or inspected? • What should the water temperature be? • What is “the work area”? Use ANSI Z358.1 for the details.
The Four Principals of Hazard Recognition All employees have a responsibility to understand rules and associated hazards.
The Four Principals of Hazard Recognition • All employees have a responsibility to understand rules and associated hazards. • Management is responsible for providing training to recognize hazards.
The Four Principals of Hazard Recognition • All employees have a responsibility to understand rules and associated hazards. • Management is responsible for providing training to recognize hazards. • It doesn’t take a professional to spot the hazards.
The Four Principals of Hazard Recognition • All employees have a responsibility to understand rules and associated hazards. • Management is responsible for providing training to recognize hazards. • It doesn’t take a professional to spot the hazards. • Hazard recognition is a key element of “Doing the Job Right”
Three Opportunities to Recognize Hazards Pre-Exposure (Planning Stage) During Exposure (Auditing and Inspecting) Post Exposure (Incident Investigation)
Pre-Exposure (Planning Stage) Multi-Step Planning Process Issuing Work Permits Pre-Use Analysis (New Equipment, New Chemicals) Blueprint Reviews S/H/E Project Reviews Management of Change Turnaround Planning Employee Suggestion Boxes Open Door Policies Risk Mapping Three Opportunities to Recognize Hazards
Planning the Work • Every job, every task, every operation must be planned
Planning the Work • One simple field technique is a short multi-step process with the following 4 questions: • What am I about to do? • What do I need to do this job and how will I do it? • How could I get hurt? • What am I going to do to prevent injury?
Hazard Recognition • Multi-step planning technique • Identify the task • Identify tools and equipment to be used • Obtain proper procedures and permits • Identify how injury or illness can occur • Implement proper controls
Hazard Recognition • Implement proper controls • Assure employees trained • Assure tools and equipment are in safe condition • Assure procedures are correct and followed
Techniques for Hazard Recognition Pre-use analysis • Examine new equipment and facilities before use
During Exposure (Auditing and Inspecting) Job Hazard Analysis Hazops / What-If Analysis Walkthrough Inspections and Audits Equipment Inspections Behavioral Audits Management System Audits Perception Surveys IH Surveys Housekeeping Reviews Three Opportunities to Recognize Hazards
Hazard Recognition Techniques During Exposure • Ten-Second Drill • Out-of-View Audits • Three Key Questions • Behavioral Observations • Inspections and Audits
During Exposure Hazard Recognition Techniques Ten Second Drill • Take 10 seconds to look at the people in the area • Are they wearing their PPE, using machine guards, doing the job right?
The Three Key Questions of Hazard Recognition First Key Question:Is there anything different? • Different based on your education, your life experiences, your expectations of the workplace. • When you see something different and you don’t know if a hazard exists, ask someone who would know.
The Three Key Questions of Hazard Recognition Second Key Question:Is there a hazard? • If someone gets hurt, would any changes be made to prevent recurrence? • If not, then the hazard is an acceptable risk. • If so, why not change the hazard now before someone is injured?
The Three Key Questions of Hazard Recognition Third Key Question: Is the job being done right? • From an efficiency standpoint • From a quality standpoint • A cost standpoint • A safety standpoint
Hazard Recognition • Perception surveys • Indicate how well employees understand safety and health policies • Indicate policy feasibility • Identify other weaknesses
Post Exposure (Incident Investigation) Root Cause Analysis Action Critiques such as Emergency Response, Rescues, New Process Startups Demolition Audits Three Opportunities to Recognize Hazards
Post Exposure Post Exposure Hazard Recognition Techniques • Employee Suggestion Systems • Work Orders • Incident Investigation/Analysis • Action Critiques
Action Critiques • Emergency drills • Rescue efforts • Demolitions • Shutdowns • Startups
Action Critiques Use Pertinent Standards to Conduct Action Critiques
Action Critiques Areas to Critique from 1910.38 and .165 • Sounding the alarm or notifying the proper authorities • Using fire extinguishers • Emergency egress • Rally points for headcounts • Rescue and medical duties • Staying behind for critical operations and shutdowns
Written Program • Management support • Recognition • Evaluation • Control • Permitting • Training • Familiarization period • Follow-up
Techniques for Hazard Recognition Thank you! Bill Taylor, CSP firstname.lastname@example.org www.ctjsafety.com 919-477-1332