1 CHEM100/ Food Chemistry • The material for this unit is in chaps 15-16, 19-20 (text on reserve) slides pp 55-60. • We cover Biochemistry slides p.50, Food/Agriculture p.55, Drugs,p. 61-78 , and Tox-icology p. 66 slides 30,31 for the final exam part 1.
CHEM100/Food Chem. • Lecture notebook pp. 88-114. • Objectives:132-152
3 CHEM100/ Food Chem. • Three basic structural groups: • Protein- polymers of amino acids • Fats- esters of fatty acids and glycerol.
4 CHEM100/Food Chemistry • Carbohydrates: Glucose and various other simple sugars plus starch, a polymer of glucose. • Carbohydrates are mainly energy molecules
5 CHEM100/Food Chemistry • Fats are energy storage molecules • Proteins are structural and enzymes. • We need to eat to get glucose and 8 amino acids.
6 CHEM100/Food • Of 22 amino acids need to make proteins, humans manufacture 14. The other 8 (some say 10) are called Essential Amino Acids. • Two of these are also used to synthesize neurotransmitters
7 CHEM100/Food • These two amino acids, tryptophane and tryrosine, are precursers to serotonin and the L-dopamine series of neurotransmitters respectively
8 CHEM100/Food • Low levels of serotonin are typically found in suicide victims. Diet may contribute to suicide????? • PLEASE NOTE: The human body CANNOT make these amino acids.
CHEM 100/Essential Fatty Acids • There are essential fatty acids as well. These are found in abundance in fish and flax seed oils.
CHEM100/Food • Anorexia, a food disorder associated mainly with young women, seems to lead to ongoing problems. Of 70 women diagnosed with the disorder, all had at least one psychiatric disorder in the mid ‘90s.* • *B.Bower, “Sci. News”, 18 Jul.’98, p.39
9 CHEM100/Food • It is little wonder that anorexics and starving people have mental problems. Note: the brain is the favorite organ of the body. Other parts can be stripped to fix the brain.
10 CHEM100/Food • The following chemical transformations are possible in the body: • fat-> energy • glucose->energy and/or fat • protein-> fat and/or glucose
11 CHEM100/Food • Vitamins: act as a kind of catalyst • Minerals: required in various chemicals- EXAMPLE: Fe in hemoglobin • Women need as much or more than men.
CHEM100/ Easy Nutrition Advice/Carbohydrates • Minimize “white foods”- white bread, white rice, potatoes (Except cauliflower &skim milk) • Maximize “colored foods” red peppers, oranges, tomatoes greens, whole grains.
CHEM 100/More Nutrition Advice • Antioxidants, lycopenes, flavenoids and other nutrients work better when they come from food. The “colored” veggies, whole grains and fruits are the main source. Pills can work, but not as well.* • *read more about this in “Health”, Jan/Feb, 2001, p. 20
12 CHEM100/Food • Additives: • Used for Nutrition, flavor, enhance flavor, preservation, color, sweetness • Some “natural” additives; oxalic acid, salt, vit.A, ergot
13 CHEM100/Foods • Carcinogens “naturally “ found in foods: aflatoxin(peanuts), safrole(cinnamon,nutmeg), 3,4-benzpyrene(charcoal broiled anything) BROOKS!!!
14 CHEM 100/Food • Contaminants: bacteria, PCBs, hormones, Pb, DES, sulfites, bugs, pesticides, droppings(rat), cow, etc., • Mad Cow Disease. • Contaminated burgers.
15 CHEM100/Food • High Tech Pizza • Regular pizza has food components from all four food groups; milk, meat(beans), grain, vegetables
16 CHE100/Food • BUT: The grain has been treated with chemicals that alter the structure, the cheese, tomatoes, and sausage are all manufactured from components that are manufactured or chemical additives.
17 CHEM100/Food • This constitutes an extreme example. Yet this is the sort of meal served to school children. • Teachers trying to teach nutrition are faced with the fact that the appearance of food may not suffice.
18 CHEM 100/Agriculture • Population: Conventional wisdom- Population growth out of control • Wattenberg- well known demographer says NO- (N.Y.Times Sun . 23 Nov ‘97)-based on latest UN data. A recent article in Science (vol282, 16 Oct ‘98, p. 419) entitled “Demographic Consequences of Declining Fertility”) reinforces this analysis- population pressure is declining.
19 CHEM100/Agriculture • World barely replacing its population. Most rapidly growing areas are at 3 children/woman. Replacement is 2.1 children/woman. Currently the U.S. is less than 2/woman (Wattenberg, NY Times). • A recent US News & World Report (1Mar’99) had a feature story on aging of world population. Peter F Drucker in his latest book states that the biggest problem facing business is population decline & aging. In her book “War on Population. Dr J.Kasun questions the conventional population wisdom in her book “The War on Population”.
20 CHEM100/Agriculture • Biological growth is geometrical • If rate of growth is 10%, there is doubling every 7 years or 70/10=7 • Divide 70 by % growth.
21 CHEM100/Agriculture • Need to keep pace with population. (there is still growth BUT from better health-longevity, not births.) • To do this we need soil fertility and pest control. Also need water and suitable climate- go back to concerns over human tampering with climate such as global warming.
22 CHEM100/Agriculture • Major fertility: Phosphate, Nitrate, Potassium • Minor or trace elements: Ca, B, Cu, Zn, etc. • pH control usually with lime(CaCO3).
23 CHEM100/Agriculture • Pesticides: mainly insecticides and herbicides • Broad Spectrum- kills all insects-narrow spectrum desirable- kills only pest • Persistent- lasts a long time in environment. Nonpersistent is more desirable.
24 CHEM100/Ag • Chlorohydrocarbons (DDT, Chlordane, Lindane, Dieldrin) are broad spectrum and VERY persistent. Some or all of these are estrogen mimicking chemicals, and therefore are thought to cause certain diseases such as cancer. The connection is still uncertain, but caution is advised. No longer used widely in USA.
CHEM100/Pesticides • Organophosphates- broad spectrum, non persistent- many especially parathion quite poisonous. Malathion less dangerous. No pest strips and flea/tick collars have a relatively nonpoisonous type. Parathion not used in USA- still used in other countries.
CHEM100/Malathion • Malathion has been used during the summers of ‘99 & ‘00 in certain areas- especially the New York City region- to combat mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus. • There are environmental concerns about the effect of residues from this compound on lobsters in Long Island Sound
CHEM100/ Carbamates • Typical trade name: Sevin • More narrow spectrum than chlorohydrocarbons and organophosphates and not persistent. Used a great deal now.
25 CHEM 100/Ag • Newer pesticides: Pheromones-attract males, then kill the males Juvenile hormones-prevent maturation Other bugs/diseases Sterilization • Also in lecture notebook