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copepoda as a live food

a presentation for live food and aquaculturists.

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copepoda as a live food

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  1. In the name of God Copepods as a live food Presented to the faculty of marine science Khoram-shahr university of marine science and technology By: AkbarAghaei Advisor: Dr.M.zakeri

  2. Why copepod?

  3. Higher nutritional value Match better the nutritional requirments As nauplii or copepodits or adults Typical zigzag movement Cleaning of the fish larvae rearing tanks Diversity of size spectra among and within species by numerous development stages More natural diet for fish larvae Better development,growth,nutritional content and survival of the larvae(Evjemo et al.,2004)

  4. What is Copepod?

  5. Taxonomy Largest class of CrustaceansMore than 11,500 species have been classified Cyclopoid & Harpacticoid Calanoid

  6. Morphology and Anatomy a)Calanoid b)Cyclopoid c)Harpacticoid

  7. Biology and life cycle • An important link between phytoplankton & higher trophic levels • Most adults 1-5 mm in length depends on species • Mainly suspension feeder on phytoplankton & bacteria • The males are smaller and lower in abundance • Life span 6-12 month • Dormant or resting eggs • Diapause stage usually between (CII) to adult female

  8. Biology and life cycle

  9. Calanoids • Euryhaline(1-38ppt) and Eurythermal(0-30 C˚) • Most are neritic (near of shore in 0-20 m depth) • Dormancy • To date 44 Calanoid species with resting eggs

  10. Harpacticoids • Easier rearing under intensive condition • Higher productivity than calanoids • High fecundity and short generation time • Use of large variety of food • Extreme tolerance (15-70 ppt _ 17-30 C˚) • Grazing organic debris from stable substrate • Small size(adult typically 1 mm in length) • Density up to 40,000 Ind/L • Mass culture in relatively small units • Short life cycle Tisbe sp. 7-29 days Tigriopus sp. 12-21 days

  11. cyclopoids Omnivorous (phytoplankton , yeast and other foods) Some species 4-5 days development (Apocyclops royi) Production 16000/L (Shirgur, 1989) Optimal adult stocking density (Apocyclops panamensis) 2560 adult/L

  12. Calanoids Harpacticoids Acartia spp. Tisbe holothuriae Euritemora affinis Tigriopus japonicus Calanus finmarchicus Tisbenta elongata C. Helgolandicus Schizoperaelatensis Pseudocalanuc elongatus Cyclopoids Oithona spp. Apocyclops spp.

  13. Copepods and aquaculture

  14. Nutritional quality • High protein content(44-52%) • Good amino acid profile(except methionine & histidine) • Fatty acid composition(depends on that of the diet) • Higher levels of digestive enzymes • Faster passage through the gut and better digestion than Artemia(Pederson,1984) • A natural omega-3 profile

  15. Collection Sediment collection Plankton net Light traps Pump system

  16. Feeding

  17. Culture systems Batch culture Continous culture Extensive culture Intensive culture And… Batch culture • Small flasks 150 adults of both sexes • 20 L carboys or tanks • Larger tanks (100 L for pelagic ones) • Initially small seawater volume • Increasing volume as the culture grows

  18. Extensive production • A mixture of copepods • Usually start with diapause eggs • Outdoor 1000-1500 m² pond • Averagedepth of 1 m Fertilizer

  19. Continous production Basis tanks • 200 L grey PVC tanks • Under optimal hygienic condition • Filtered seawater (1 μm) with proper salinity & temperature • Gentle aeration • Proper density & male/female ratio • 5% water siphoning daily • Emptied and cleaned 2-3 times per year

  20. Continous production Growth tanks • Maximal density 6000/L • 24-48 h incubation • Adding of phytoplankton

  21. Continous production Harvest tanks • 300-500 L • 80% oxygen saturation • Emptied and cleaned more regularly

  22. Intensive production • Indoor,clear plastic bags suspended from a frame • Tanks (250,1000,3000,25000 L) • 1 μm filtered water • Low aeration • Photoperiod often 24 h light • Feeding • Monitoring of Do,pH,temperature and salinity

  23. Egg collection By sieve Egg collection system Squeegee

  24. Enrichment • 20 L plastic buckets (18 L working volume) • Copepod nauplii 200 ind/ml • 3 , 6 and 12 hour period • A1-super selco • 0.6 mg per liter in seawater 32 ppt • Isochrysis galbana • Nannochloropsis oculata

  25. Dormancy • Dormancy during the lifecycle • Dormant eggs • Depending on photoperiod & temperature • Obligatory “resting or refraction” phase • Resistant to disinfection (reduction of contaminant risks) • As an inoculum to initiate culture • As a stock after population crashes

  26. None-diapause eggs • As a reservoir of nauplii to restart production • As a supply of nauplii for fish larvae • For 2-6 weeks • Cleaning and washing through sieve • 5,000,000 eggs per 50 ml Falcon tube • Stable around 1 C˚ Hatching ratio

  27. Diapause eggs storage • Sediment stored at 2-4 C˚ • Is brought in suspension • Sieved through 150 and 60 μm • 1:1 solution of sucrose and distilled water • Centrifuging(300 rpm for 5 min) • Supernatant through a double sieve of 100 and 40 μm • Disinfection (FAM-30 or Buffodine) (subitanous and diapause eggs) • Washed with 0.2 μm filtered seawater • Cultured or stored

  28. None-diapause eggs activation • 50,000 eggs per liter • Rinsing the eggs on a proper sieve • Incubation 48 h at 25 C˚

  29. Diapause eggs activation • Increasing anoxic storage time at 4 C˚= Decrease in hatching ratio • For acartia tonsa (85% fresh hatch) • A linear decrease of 4% every 20 days (Peck & Holste, 2006)

  30. As live food for… Gadus mohua Lutjanus campechanus Coryphaena hipporus Epinephelus coioides Acantopagrus cuvieri Platichthys flesus Hippoglossus hippoglossus Morane saxatillis &……

  31. Use by fish larvae • Mouth size of the predator • Prey width • Prey movement • Concentration of both prey and predator • Feeding prey • Gain competence for capture • Phototaxy • … illumination and prey contrast best sizes 30-60 μm width <100 μm length

  32. References -Patrick,L., P.Sorgeloos.,1996.Manual on the production and use of live food,FAO press. -Nancy,H.Marcus.,2005.Calanoidcopepods,resting eggs and aquaculture.Copepods in aquaculture.blackwell publishing,3-9. -Kleppel,G.S.,Sarah E.Hazzard .,Carol A.Burkart.,2005.Maximizing the nutritional values of copepods in aquaculture;managed versus balancednutrition.Copepods in aquaculture.blackwell publishing,49-60. - Ronald P.Phelps.,Gede S.Sumiarsa.,Emily E.Lipman.,Hsiang0pin Lan.,Komarey Kao Moss.,Allen D.Davis.,2005.Intensivean extensive production techniques to provide copepod nauplii for feeding larval Red snapper.Copepods inaquaculture,Blackwell publishing,151-168. -Patricia,J.O Bryen.,Cheng-sheng Lee.,2005.Cultureof copepods and application to marine finfish larval rearing workshop discussionsummary.Copepods in aquaculture.Blackwell publishing,245-254. -Nancy H.Marcus.,Jeffery A.Wilcox.,2007.A guide to the meso-scale production of theCopepod Acartia tonsa.Florida state university press. -Josianne G.stottrup.,2006.Areview on the status and progress in rearing copepods for marinelarviculture.Danish Institute for Fisheries Research. - http://www.itis.gov/

  33. اگر تنهاترين تنها شوم، باز هم خدا هست. (دكترشريعتي) Thanks for your attention

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