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Person-Centered Therapy

Person-Centered Therapy

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Person-Centered Therapy

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  1. Person-Centered Therapy

  2. Person-Centered Therapy • Carl Rogers • Fundamentalist upbringing • Trained theology and clinical psychology • His therapy was a reaction to directive therapies (e.g., psychoanalysis, behavior therapy) • Based on a philosophy of human nature as an innate striving to better oneself

  3. Theory of Personality • Human beings are whole organisms • One primary drive – SELF ACTUALIZATION • Humans inherently strive to develop optimal capacities to serve and maintain the organism • Basic needs • Tension reduction • Relating to others • Cultural engagement

  4. Theory of Personality • Organismic Valuing Process • We naturally value those things that help us actualize • Self-concept • We differentiate experiences that are us vs. those that belong to others • Self-experiences form together to yield a unified concept of self. • Development of SC leads to need for POSITIVE REGARD

  5. Positive Regard to Conditions of Worth • Need for PR, to be loved, prized, valued, becomes the most potent in developing person. • Parents and community place CONDITIONS of WORTH on those behaviors that lead to PR. • People’s SC then begins to mirror the way people give out PR ----- Self-regard

  6. Psychopathology • Related to degree of conditionality • Experiences consistent with worth are allowed in ones that aren’t are distorted • Distortion leads to INCONGRUENCE • Discrepancy in Self vs. Experience • Leads person to be more “fractured” than whole and distorts what people see as a worthy avenue of actualization • Symptoms manifest as people attempt to prevent threatening experiences coming into awareness

  7. Person-Centered Therapy • Therapy is a permissive, non-directive climate • Phenomenological approach: seeing and understanding others from their reference, perception • Therapist: creates a growth promoting environment, non directive, not the expert, non controlling, caring, accepting, genuine. • Client: remove obstacles that are blocking growth

  8. Person-Centered Therapy GOALS OF THERAPY • Work through distortions that create incongruence • Lessen the impact of conditions of worth • Become more “here and now” • Become more actualized • Open to experiences • Trust themselves • Realistic Self-evaluation • Continue growing

  9. Therapeutic Relationship • Rogers speaks of six conditions that comprise the TR • Relationship • Vulnerability • Motivates and maintains the relationship • Genuineness • Congruence/No deception of client or self • Unconditional Positive Regard • Caring – reduces conditions of worth • Accurate Empathy • Perceive and reflect the clients inner world and perceptions • Bracket our own feelings and perceptions • Perception of Genuineness • Client has to see all these things in the therapist

  10. Change Processes • Consciousness raising • Happens through reflection, organization and attention allocation toward emotional experience • Surrogate information processes • Cartharsis • Positive regard leads to safety • Therapist “follows the affect.”

  11. Therapeutic Content • Intrapersonal • Distortion or denial of experiences • Conflict between ideal and real self • Fulfillment • Self-actualization

  12. Person-Centered Therapy STRENGTHS • Empathy • Phenomenological approach • Reflection • Increase self-understanding • Genuine • Unconditional positive regard and acceptance

  13. Person-Centered Therapy WEAKNESSES • Client is not challenged • Too simplistic • No interventions/techniques • Undirected • Not all clients are able to find their own answers • Not much research on theory and practice • Theory has not evolved much since the 1960’s

  14. Motivational Interviewing • Client centered and directive • Resolve ambivalence • Four principles • Express empathy • Roll w/resistance • Develop discrepancy • Support self-efficacy

  15. MI: Basic Strategies • Open questions • Affirmation • Reflections • Parrot • Rephrase • Meaning • Feeling • Summary

  16. MI: Processes of Change • Same as Rogers • Consciousness raising • Catharsis • Selective reinforcement of CHANGE Talk • Desire • Ability • Reasons • Need • Commitment

  17. Commitment Language Pattern A inDrug Abuse Treatment Session

  18. Outcomes for Pattern A Group

  19. Commitment Language Pattern B Amrhein et al., Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 2003 71:862-878

  20. Outcomes for Pattern B Group