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Cycle 5 Week 1 PowerPoint Presentation
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Cycle 5 Week 1

Cycle 5 Week 1

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Cycle 5 Week 1

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  1. New Testament – An Overview Cycle5 Week1

  2. Comparison:

  3. Reading Plan:

  4. Inter-Testamental Period: OLD Testament NEW Testament 1 BC 430 BC 0 CAPTIVITY Ezra – Haggai/ Zechariah Nehemiah - Malachi birth of John the Baptist birth of Jesus Christ

  5. Inter-Testamental Period: See, I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me. Malachi3:1 See, I will send you the prophet Elijah before that great and dreadful day of the LORD comes. He will turn the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers; … Malachi4:5-6 OLD Testament NEW Testament 1 BC 430 BC 0 CAPTIVITY Ezra – Haggai/ Zechariah Nehemiah - Malachi birth of John the Baptist birth of Jesus Christ

  6. Inter-Testamental Period: When reading the NEW Testament, you quickly realise that 'things' have changed since Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem & Malachi spoke the words of God to Israel. The world that welcomed Jesus had changed much... OLD Testament NEW Testament 1 BC 430 BC 0 CAPTIVITY Ezra – Haggai/ Zechariah Nehemiah - Malachi birth of John the Baptist birth of Jesus Christ

  7. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament 1 BC 430 BC 0 CAPTIVITY Inter-Testamental Ezra – Haggai/ Zechariah Nehemiah - Malachi birth of John the Baptist birth of Jesus Christ

  8. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • NO voice of God • NO Scripture written • NO revelation through the Prophets • Yet... much took place in that time & has been well recorded in other writings • Events that effected the life & times of the NT...

  9. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament 539 BC 430 BC 330 BC Persian Period: Jews seemed to have enjoyed the favour of the Persians – even allowed to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple

  10. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament 539 BC 430 BC 330 BC “While not totally successful, Malachi seemed to have elevated Word of God to new heights & strictly applied principles in daily life” Persian Period: Jews seemed to have enjoyed the favour of the Persians – even allowed to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple

  11. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament 143 BC 430 BC 330 BC Greek Period: Alexander the Great 331-323BC Once in power, he led his army to a swift & complete victory over the Persians. Then he took over Palestine & the Jews had a new master...

  12. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Greek Period: Alexander the Great 331-323BC • Jews did resist him, & he treated them well • He was committed to a world united through Greek language & culture • His conquests caused the rapid & thorough spread on Greek culture – permeating life everywhere... • Greek language became the common trade & diplomatic language – bu NT times, it was the language of the common man.

  13. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” Greek Period: Alexander the Great 331-323BC

  14. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Greek Period: Alexander the Great 331-323BC • With his early death (33yrs), his vast empire was divided into 4 parts. • As he had no heir old enough to take his throne, 4 of his generals eventually partitioned the empire – only 2 are NB to our study of NT: • Ptolemy • Seleucus

  15. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament 143 BC 430 BC 330 BC Greek Period: Ptolemies 321-198BC Generally a quiet & prosperous period for the Jews – though occassional wars with the Seleucids turned Palestine into a war zone...

  16. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Greek Period: Ptolemies 321-198BC • Ptolemy Philadelphus (reign 285-247BC) had (in about 250BC) the Hebrew OT translated by 72x Jewish scholars into the Greek language in order to meet the needs of most Jews reared in the Greek culture. • Many Jews now understood Greek even better than Hebrew... • This version, called the Septuagint (Latin for 70) , became an NB document to the Jews living outside Palestine • Later it was the Bible for the early Church... • NIV Study Bible: “...difficult to overestimate its influence...”

  17. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament 143 BC 430 BC 330 BC Greek Period: Seleucids 198-143BC With the help of a strong Jewish faction, the Seleucids attacked the Ptolemies from Syria & drove them back into Egypt.

  18. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Greek Period: Seleucids 198-143BC • With the victory of Antiochus III, Hellenism (spread of Greek culture) took over Palestine. • Antiochus IV (reigned 175-164BC) went further by attacking Jewish religion & culture: • Prohibited some of the central elements of Jewish practice; • Tried to destroy all copies of the Torah; • Demanded offerings to the Greek god Zeus – having erected a statue of Zeus in Jerusalem; • Sacrificed a pig in the Jerusalem temple itself..?!

  19. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Greek Period: Seleucids 198-143BC • Antiochus IV was so wicked that he is referred to as a picture of the anti-christ who will appear in the end times... • Rebellion was inevitable – led by Mattathias, an elderly villager from a priestly family & his 5x sons: • He refused to obey the king's representative who had come to his town to enforce the sacrifice to the Greek god... • He even killed a Jew who willingly stepped forward to carry out the sacrifice.?!

  20. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Greek Period: Seleucids 198-143BC • Mattathias's uprising triggered a revolt. • Led by his son, Judas (known as Maccabeus – 'the hammer'), they fought for 24yrs using guerilla tactics. • 3yrs after Antiochus IV has desecrated the temple in Jerusalem, Judas & his forces were able to recapture Jerusalem, & cleanse & rededicate the temple (Dec 165BC). • Judah won back their independence in 143BC...

  21. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament 143 BC 430 BC 330 BC 63 BC Hasmonean Period: 143-63BC Derived from the family name of Mattathias, Hashmon; this was the period when his sons ruled the new independent state of Judah.

  22. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Hasmonean Period: 143-63BC • Simon, a brother of Judas, was the 1st ruler of the independent state of Judah. • He was declared the high priest & civil leader of the Jews as long as he lived – gave new power to the office of the high priest. • Simon's reign was short but good for the Jews – he negotiated a treaty with Rome in 139BC that confirmed the independence of the Jewish state. Economy improved. Justice was ably administered. Jewish religious life returned...

  23. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Hasmonean Period: 143-63BC • But various factions among the Jews had different ideas, & much of the Hasmonean period was characterised by struggles & strife. • Simon & his 2x sons were murdered. • But another of his sons, John Hyrcanus, became the religious-political leader. • A capable military leader, he managed to regain territory that had once belonged to the Jews... • After his death in 106BC, internal strife became part of Jewish life until 63BC...

  24. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament 143 BC 430 BC 330 BC 63 BC Roman Period: 63BC-NEW Testament In 63BC the Roman army intervened in a Jewish civil war started between 2x members of the Hasmonean dynasty – restoring peace in the streets, but resubjecting the Jews to foreign domination – now Rome

  25. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Roman Period: 63BC-NEW Testament • Pompey, the Roman general who subdued the east for Rome, took Jerusalem after a 3mnth seige of the temple area, & massacared priests while performing their duties & entered the most Holy Place... • Such sacrilege began Roman rule in a way that Jews could neither forgive nor forget... • Initially, Rome set up John Hyrcanus II as king, but subject to Rome.

  26. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” • Roman Period: 63BC-NEW Testament • Even while Hyrcanus II ruled, Antipater rose in favour with the Romans, & was able to get his sons placed into positions of power in Palestine. • Herod (the Great), one of his sons, would eventually be declared king. • Herod would reign 37BC-4BC – a man of great ability, but also great wickedness: • Mudering his own family who threatened his rule... • Ordering the murder of all male babies in Bethlehem (Math2:16)

  27. Inter-Testamental Period: “the silent years” OLD Testament NEW Testament OT canon is settled without any significant debate about certain books. 1 BC 430 BC 0 CAPTIVITY Inter-Testamental Septuagint Dead Sea Scrolls – found by an Arab shepherd on 1947. Apocrypha – (Gk) hidden History; fiction; & wisdom were popular books but never considered Scripture vs Apocalyptic – (Gk) revelation of secrets