From the Stone Age to the Industrial Revolution • STONE AGE • EOLITHIC a million years ago to about a hundred thousand years ago a)stone tools • b) speech and language • PALEOLITHIC up to about 8000 B.C. a) fire making • b) pottery • c) advanced stone tools
Stone Age con’t. • NEOLITHIC 8000 to 2500 B.C. • a) specialized tools and weapons • b) dug-out canoes • c) mining • d) taming of animals • e) agriculture • f) early means of transport
Man showed interest in terrestrial phenomenon and the heavens, as seen in the drawings he made on his tools and on cave walls • Knowledge is not organized, though there is a clear ordering of his observations • Originally, tools are pre-shaped by nature • More complex tools and techniques emerged with the development of man’s activities • Man discovered fire (percussion method, heat from friction) Science Technology
The Bronze age is dominated by Mesopotamia and EgyptMesopotamia is centered in the Tigris and EuphratesEgypt is centered in the Nile Copper&Bronze Age (4000-1000 BC)
COPPER AND BRONZE AGE 3rd millenium B.C. to 400 B.C. • a) writing • b) metallurgy • c) rise of urban civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia • d) waterworks both for irrigation and supply for urban cities • e) wheeled vehicles and river transport • f) building materials of stone and brick • g) textiles out of wool, linen, cotton and silk • h) development of potter’s wheel
Metallurgy • -Native metals were originally collected for • ornaments • -Smelting of copper began in Egypt in 4000 BC • -The Bronze Age is characterized by a metallurgy • based on casting and alloying • -Bronze is “improved copper” • -Bronze making did not take off because of the • short supply of tin • -Shortage of tin spurred trading
Science • In both Egypt and Mesopotamia • Science was tied to temple schools • Mathematics was simple (conversion of units, calculation of area and volume) • Technology is separated from science
Contributions from Ancient Civilization Origin of the calendar • Babylonians: year consists of 360 days divided into 12 lunar months • Egyptians:year consists of 36 10-day period
Cosmological Beliefs Babylonians: The heaven was a hemispherical vault resting on waters surrounding the earth which is a flat disc. Egyptians: The world is a rectangular box where the slight concave earth is at the bottom. The sky at the top is supported by peaks of four mountains.
Genesis The world came into existence from a primeval chaos of water, The heaven, earth, air and other objects and forces are a result of the union of the male and female gods of chaos. Babylonians: younger gods used force to conquer nature Egyptians: gods are powerful without being violent
Summary of Achievements of Ancient Science(4000 B.C- 500 A.D.) • Mathematics: arithmetic, geometry • Astronomy: movement of heavens; shape and size of earth; earth-centered universe • Mechanics - spring bow, lever,wheel, pulley, wedge • Dynamics - resisted motion, sound as vibration • Pneumatics/heat - bellows, pumps, Archimedes • Magnetism -magnets • Optics - shadows, mirrors, plane and curved
Classical Civilization Iron Age (1000 BC – AD 400) • Pre-Socratic Natural Philosophers • Natural Philosophy in Athens • Greek Science of the Alexandrian Period
The Iron age started when bronze age society transformed into city-based cultures. • The transformation is hastened by discovery and metallurgy of iron. • Iron is cheaper than bronze; hence, more iron materials used for wars of conquest, agriculture, and trading were produced.
Iron Age - middle of second millenium B.C. to the classical period of Greeks and Romans • a) the smelting of iron • b) invention of axes and ploughs • c) ship-building and trade • d) slavery • e) political struggles • f) money and debt • g) Phoenician alphabet • h) natural philosophy of pre-Socratic Greeks • i) Greek philosophers • j) the Alexandrian period • k) Roman era
Greek Science • Greek science is more rational and abstract compared to those of earlier civilizations. • Presentation is grounded on an argument based on general principles (deduction). • Mathematics, especially geometry, is highly favored due to methods of deduction and proof. • Astronomical data and observations were collected.
Greek Science cont’d • All general problems of modern science started with the formulation of the Greeks. • Despite their elegance, some of the solutions proposed by Greeks were meaningless. • Phases in Greek science development • Ionian • Athenian or Hellenic • Alexandrian or Hellenistic • Roman
Pre-Socratic period * nature more impersonal than that of previous civilization Thales - similar views of the universe as that of the ancient civilization but with the disappearance of the sun-god Anaximander - suggested fire as the fourth basic element; he said that the heavens were concentric about the earth; and living creatures rose from moist element as the sun evaporated them. Anaximenes- difference between elements were quantitative
Pre-Socratic con’t. Heraclitus - the idea of retribution to explain the world order Pythagoras and thePythagorean School *founded a school devoted to a life of mathematical speculation *his name bears the rule for the right triangle *first to show the relation between the sound and the length of a string *numbers provide the conceptual model of the universe. They are forms and images of natural objects.
Pythagoras con’t *The universe was divided into earth, cosmos and olympos -these bodies are spherical -heavenly bodies move in circular and uniform motion -noble bodies move slower than the less noble ones * The idea that the earth is the center of the universe evolved Empedocles - theory of organic evolution
The Atomists (Democritus) *the universe consists of indivisible atoms that move in the void *man is the microcosm of the universe *their cosmology is entirely mechanistic, all things were pre-determined *they did not use human analogies. For them, wrong doers are punished not for vengeance but a deterrence for further commission of crime.
Natural Philosophy in Athens • Anaxagoras - Ionian philosopher who believed heavenly bodies were of the same quality as the earth and not divine as what Pythagoreans believed • craft and philosophical traditions were separated while society grew and differentiated • Socrates -chief philosopher of the time. To him the task of the philosopher was the ordering of man and human society. He devoted his time to the problems of an ethical and political nature.
Athens con’t. Plato - founded the Academy - he suggested any philosophy is subordinate to ethics and politics - the universe was an uncreated chaos, the ordering being done by a creator who has a rational design of the world. Eudoxus - unified quantitative astronomy with cosmological interpretations Aristotle - the heavenly bodies were arranged outwards from the earth -absolute diferrence between heavenly and terrestrial bodies
Aristotle con’t. - motion is maintained so long as the body was in direct contact with a continuously operating mover -the idea of a prime mover and the nonexistence of vacuum - to him there are four causes of all natural processes: material, formal, efficient and final - the first to embark upon extensive empirical inquiries - he set up the Lyceum
The Alexandrian Period • The museum of Alexandria was founded as a research and teaching institute • Archimedes - made devices as screws, apparatus for astronomical purposes; he discovered bouyancy and relative densities; he originated method for deducing pi • Euclid - systematized geometry • Aristarchus - the earth moved around the sun • Erastosthenes - measured the size of the earth; earth as a globe with poles and an equator; made a map of earth marked with latitudes and longitudes • Hipparchus - observational astronomy
Alexandrian con’t. Ptolemy - adopted and developed the Hipparchus system of eccentrics and epicycles; he put forward the so-called geocentric theory, that is, the earth as the center of the universe ROMAN EMPIRE - main contributions were a)formulation of Roman law; b) formation of public medical science; c) building of aqueducts and roads; d) Julian calendar; e) systems of Ptolemy and Aristotle were given Christian and theological dress
Medieval and Arabic Period 500-1450 A.D. • cultural advances in Persia and Syria, India and China • Hellinistic culture (science and art) flourished in Constantinople • wandering tribes and barbaric invasion of Europe • feudal system of economic order • phenomenon of organized religion worldwide
Medieval and Arabic Period con’t. • activity in science was directed to the dominant religious mode, thus the universe was considered a theological universe • establishment of Islamic empire and the invasion of the Arabs • medieval world was a theological physical world of spheres - spheres of sun, moon, and planets above which is the great sphere of fixed stars and heaven beyond • earth is the center of the universe
Summary of Achievements during the Medieval and Arabic Period(500-1450 A.D.) • Mathematics - Arabic numbers ; algebra • Astronomy - navigational astronomy • Mechanics - horse harness, gearing, water and windmills, clocks, pumps • Dynamics - motion of the projectile • Magnetism and electricity - compass • Optics - lenses, eye spectacle
Rennaisance -mid 14th century to 17th a) rebirth of classical antiquity and revival of humanistic spirit; period characterized as one of the most creative & glorious periods of human endeavor b) age of great voyages and discovery c) rise of western culture /monarchy d) gunpowder* and cannon introduced e) neo-classical style of architecture cf.Gothic f) printing*: the invention of the press, paper, ink g) use of magnetic compass and other navigational aids
Rennaisance con’t. g) use of magnetic compass and other navigational aids h)windmills and other power devices i) iron-shod horses j) mechanical clocks and metal works k) spectacle-making l) iron foundries and steel making m) use of fuel, e.g. in steam engines *the two major innovations during this time
The Industrial Age - 18th to 19th century a) period known as the great efflorescence of technology b) the development of capitalism c) the scientific revolution of 1760 to 1830 i) production of current ii) expansion in all fields of human activity d) the use of coal as fuel and casting of iron e) developments in heavy industry and transport like mechanization of textile industry f) agricultural revolution g) politics and science h) capitalism and the rise of machinery i) classical scientific view