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Flint Simonsen , Ph.D. Whitworth University PowerPoint Presentation
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Flint Simonsen , Ph.D. Whitworth University

Flint Simonsen , Ph.D. Whitworth University

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Flint Simonsen , Ph.D. Whitworth University

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  1. Social and emotional success for all students through Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Flint Simonsen, Ph.D. Whitworth University

  2. www.PBIS.org

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  4. School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) Horner (2012) The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity

  5. First some context…What seems to be the problem?

  6. 0 Traditional Approach to Problem Behavior Amount of Resources Needed To Solve Problem Special Education Sea of Ineligibility General Education Intensity of Problem

  7. 0 Levels of Support“Response to Intervention” Amount of Resources Needed To Solve Problem Special Education General Education With Support General Education Intensity of Problem

  8. Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior • “Get Tough” (practices)

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  10. An Immediate and Seductive Solution,”Get Tough!” • Clamp down and increase monitoring • Re-re-re-review rules • Extend continuum and consistency of consequences • Establish “bottom line” A predictable, individual response, but…

  11. creates a false sense of security! • Fosters environments of control • Triggers and reinforces antisocial behavior • Shifts accountability away from school • Devalues child-adult relationship • Weakens relationship between academic and social behavior programming

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  13. Reactive Responses are Predictable When we experience aversive situations, we select interventions that produce immediate relief and: • Remove students • Remove ourselves • Modify physical environments • Assign responsibility for change to students and/or others

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  15. When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” • Zero tolerance policies

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  17. When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” • Zero tolerance policies • Increased surveillance • Increased suspension and expulsion • In-service training by expert • Alternative programming A predictable, systemic response, but…

  18. based on the erroneous assumption that students: • Are inherently “bad” • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” • Will be better tomorrow

  19. Science of Behavior has Taught Us that Students: • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly and receiving positive feedback

  20. “Get Tough” at what cost? An intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral.

  21. Tangible cost… 5100 referrals = 51,000 min @10 min = 850 hrs = 141 days @ 6 hrs

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  23. … so what works with challenging behaviors?

  24. 0 Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) • PBIS refers to the application of positive behavioral interventions and systems of support to achieve socially important behavior change. • Proactive and preventative rather than reactive and punitive interventions

  25. SWPBIS is

  26. Empirical Research on SWPBIS • SWPBIS Empirically Related to: • Reduction in problem behavior • Increased academic performance • Increased attendance • Improved perception of safety • Improved organizational efficiency • Reduction in staff turnover • Increased perception of teacher efficacy Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):149-156

  27. Schools at criterion average a 25% lower ODR rate

  28. A&D = Alcohol and Drug; ABS = Anti-social Behavior Scale

  29. SWPBS Subsystems School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom Student

  30. SW-PBIS Systemic Framework Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision- Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  31. PBIS is: • A framework for Behavioral RTI • Using evidence-based practicesdirected toward increasing academic engagement • Resulting in positive social, behavioral, and academic outcomes • for ALL students

  32. Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Tertiary, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Tertiary, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Secondary Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Secondary Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Primary Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Primary Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  33. School-wide and Classroom PBIS 1. Identify a common purpose and approach to discipline 2. Define a clear set of positive expectations and behaviors 3. Implement procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Implement procedures for on-going monitoring and evaluation

  34. 1. Common Approach to Discipline • All Students • All Staff • All Settings • All Times

  35. 2/3. Define and Teach Expectations and Routines

  36. Expectations

  37. Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context Expectations

  38. Teaching Academics & Behaviors DEFINE Simply ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MODEL PRACTICE In Setting

  39. 4. Consistent, Positive Feedback (Reinforcement) • Use continuum of strategies to encourage expectations: • Teach expected behavior • Increase opportunities for academic and social success • Provide positive feedback more often than corrections and reprimands (i.e., 4 to 1) • Move from tangible to social reinforcement • Move from external to self-managed reinforcement • Individualize reinforcement

  40. 4. Consistent, Positive FeedbackEncourage Expectations • Consider whole class and individual reinforcement systems • Catch students being good more often than being bad (4:1) • “But what about relationships?”

  41. 0 Caution: There are no universal reinforcers

  42. Reinforcement is…. • Feedback or information that tells us which behaviors should be repeated. • Reinforcement IS NOT: • Praise, stickers, or M&Ms • (at least not for everyone) • Learning and Behaving WILL NOT happen without feedback.

  43. Intrinsic versus Extrinsic

  44. Intrinsic versus Extrinsic

  45. 0 Artificial Reinforcement • Reinforcement that is arranged by a social agent for a behavior in which the consequence does not typically follow the behavior • Consequence is dependent on social agent

  46. 0 Natural Reinforcement • Reinforcement that follows the behavior and is the direct result of that behavior • Consequence is natural result of behavior

  47. Reinforcement is…. • Feedback or information that tells us which behaviors are desired. • Reinforcement IS NOT: • Praise, stickers, or M&Ms • (at least not for everyone) • Learning and Behaving WILL NOT happen without feedback.