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Principles and Learning Objectives

Principles and Learning Objectives

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Principles and Learning Objectives

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  1. Principles and Learning Objectives • Effective systems development requires a team effort of stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel, and it starts with careful planning. • Identify the key participants in the systems development process and discuss their roles. • Define the term information systems planning and discuss the importance of planning a project. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  2. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Systems development often uses different approaches and tools such as traditional development, prototyping, rapid application development, end-user development, computer-aided software engineering, and object-oriented development to select, implement, and monitor projects. • Discuss the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the traditional, prototyping, rapid application development, and end-user systems development life cycles. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  3. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Discuss the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools and the object-oriented approach to systems development. • Systems development starts with investigation and analysis of existing systems. • State the purpose of systems investigation. • State the purpose of systems analysis and discuss some of the tools and techniques used in this phase of systems development. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  4. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Designing new systems or modifying existing ones should always be aimed at helping an organization achieve its goals. • State the purpose of systems design and discuss the differences between logical and physical systems design. • The primary emphasis of systems implementation is to make sure that the right information is delivered to the right person in the right format at the right time. • State the purpose of systems implementation and discuss the various activities associated with this phase of systems development. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  5. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Maintenance and review add to the useful life of a system but can consume large amounts of resources. • State the importance of systems and software maintenance and discuss the activities involved. • Describe the systems review process. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  6. An Overview of Systems Development: Participants in Systems Development • Development team • Responsible for determining the objectives of the information system and delivering a system that meets these objectives • Usually consists of stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  7. Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals • Information systems planning: the translation of strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives • Aligning organizational goals and IS goals is critical for any successful systems development effort • Determining whether organizational and IS goals are aligned can be difficult Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  8. Importance of IS Planning Figure 8.3: The Steps of IS Planning Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  9. Systems Development Life Cycles • The systems development process is also called a systems development life cycle (SDLC) • Traditional systems development life cycle • Prototyping • Rapid application development (RAD) • End-user development Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  10. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle Figure 8.4: The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  11. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (continued) • Systems investigation: problems and opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business • Systems analysis: study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement • Systems design: defines how the information system will do what it must do to obtain the problem’s solution Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  12. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (continued) • Systems implementation: the creation or acquiring of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them, and placing the new or modified system into operation • Systems maintenance and review: ensures that the system operates, and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  13. Prototyping Figure 8.5: Prototyping Is an Iterative Approach to Systems Development Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  14. Rapid Application Development, Agile Development, Joint Application Development, and Other Systems Development Approaches • Rapid application development (RAD): a systems development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development • RAD makes extensive use of the joint application development (JAD) process for data collection and requirements analysis Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  15. The End-User Systems Development Life Cycle • Any systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users • End-user-developed systems can be structured as complementary to, rather than in conflict with, existing and emerging information systems Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  16. Outsourcing and On Demand Computing • An outside consulting firm or computer company that specializes in systems development can be hired to take over some or all of the development and operations activities • Outsourcing can involve a large number of countries and companies in bringing new products and services to market Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  17. Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools Table 8.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of CASE Tools Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  18. Object-Oriented Systems Development • Object-oriented systems development typically involves: • Identifying potential problems and opportunities within the organization that would be appropriate for the OO approach • Defining the kind of system users require • Designing the system Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  19. Object-Oriented Systems Development (continued) • Object-oriented systems development typically involves (continued): • Programming or modifying modules • Evaluation by users • Periodic review and modification Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  20. Systems Investigation • What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve? • What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide? • What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will improve an existing system or are required in a new system? • What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)? • What are the associated risks? Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  21. Feasibility Analysis • Technical feasibility • Economic feasibility • Legal feasibility • Operational feasibility • Schedule feasibility Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  22. Object-Oriented Systems Investigation • Key objects can be identified during systems investigation • System objects can be diagrammed in a use case diagram Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  23. Object-Oriented Systems Investigation (continued) Figure 8.7: Use Case Diagram for a Kayak Rental Application Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  24. The Systems Investigation Report • Summarizes the results of systems investigation and the process of feasibility analysis • Recommends a course of action: continue on into systems analysis, modify the project in some manner, or drop it Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  25. The Systems Investigation Report (continued) Figure 8.8: A Typical Table of Contents for a Systems Investigation Report Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  26. Systems Analysis • Answers the question “What must the information system do to solve the problem?” • Primary outcome: a prioritized list of system requirements Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  27. Data Collection • Identifying sources of data • Internal sources • External sources • Collecting data • Interviews • Direct observation • Questionnaires Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  28. Data Collection (continued) Figure 8.9: Internal and External Sources of Data for Systems Analysis Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  29. Data Analysis • Data modeling • Entity-relationship (ER) diagrams • Activity modeling • Data-flow diagrams (DFDs) Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  30. Data Analysis (continued) Figure 8.11: Data and Activity Modeling (a) An entity-relationship diagram Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  31. Data Analysis (continued) Figure 8.11: Data and Activity Modeling (continued) (b) A data-flow diagram Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  32. Data Analysis (continued) Figure 8.11: Data and Activity Modeling (continued)(c) A semantic description of the business process Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  33. Requirements Analysis • Asking directly • Critical success factors (CSFs) • The IS plan • Requirements analysis tools Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  34. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis • Identifying problems or potential opportunities • Identifying key participants and collecting data • Instead of analyzing the existing system using data-flow diagrams and flowcharts, an object-oriented approach is used Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  35. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis (continued) Figure 8.13: Generalization/Specialization Hierarchy Diagram for Single and Tandem Kayak Classes Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  36. The Systems Analysis Report • The systems analysis report should cover: • The strengths and weaknesses of the existing system from a stakeholder’s perspective • The user/stakeholder requirements for the new system (also called the functional requirements) • The organizational requirements for the new system • A description of what the new information system should do to solve the problem Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  37. Systems Design • Answers the question “How will the information system do what it must do to solve a problem?” • Has two dimensions: logical and physical • Logical design: description of the functional requirements of a system • Physical design: specification of the characteristics of the system components necessary to put the logical design into action Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  38. Object-Oriented Design • Design key objects and classes of objects in the new or updated system • Consideration of the problem domain, the operating environment, and the user interface • Consideration of the sequence of events that must happen for the system to function correctly • A sequence of events is often called a scenario • A scenario can be diagrammed in a sequence diagram Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  39. Object-Oriented Design (continued) Figure 8.15: A Sequence Diagram to Add a New KayakItem Scenario Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  40. Generating Systems Design Alternatives • Request for proposal (RFP): a document that specifies in detail required resources such as hardware and software • Financial options • Purchasing • Leasing • Renting Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  41. Evaluating and Selecting a Systems Design • Preliminary evaluation • To dismiss the unwanted proposals • Begins after all proposals have been submitted • Final evaluation • A detailed investigation of the proposals offered by the vendors remaining after the preliminary evaluation Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  42. The Design Report • Design report: the result of systems design • Contains system specifications • System specifications include technical description of: • System outputs, inputs, and user interfaces • Hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, and procedure components and the way these components are related Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  43. The Design Report (continued) Figure 8.17: A Typical Table of Contents for a Systems Design Report Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  44. Systems Implementation Figure 8.18: Typical Steps in Systems Implementation Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  45. Acquiring Hardware from an IS Vendor • An IS vendor is a company that offers hardware, software, telecommunications systems, databases, IS personnel, and/or other computer-related resources • Buying computer hardware • Leasing computer hardware • Renting computer hardware • “Pay as you go,” “on demand,” or “utility” computing Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  46. Acquiring Software: Make or Buy? • Externally developed software • In-house developed software • Blend of external and internal software development • Renting software • Reusing software from other development efforts Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  47. Acquiring Database and Telecommunications Systems • Relational databases • Object-oriented database systems • Databases are a blend of hardware and software • Telecommunications systems require a blend of hardware and software Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  48. User Preparation • Readying managers, decision makers, employees, other users, and stakeholders for new systems • Training users Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition

  49. IS Personnel: Hiring and Training • IS manager • Systems analysts • Computer programmers • Data-entry operators Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition