New England Roofing Industry Partnership Ladders and Scaffolds
SUBPARTS X & L Ladders and Scaffolds 1 References • 29 CFR 1926.1050 - .1053, Subpart X - Ladders • 29 CFR 1926.450 - .454, Subpart L - Scaffolds • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 2 X & L Training Objectives • After completing this section you will: • Understand safe ladder placement & use. • Know how to inspect a ladder for defects. • Know the basics of Subpart X - Ladders. • Understand safe erection and use of scaffolding. • Know the basics of Subpart L – Scaffolds.
Ladders not secured Ladder not extended 3 feet above landing Defective ladders Ladders within 10 feet of power lines Fixed ladders without fall protection 12% of OSHA citations for physical hazards are for unsafe ladders or stairs. Most deaths from falls off ladders happen from 10 feet or lower. Ladder Hazards SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 3 X & L
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 4 X & L Access to the Work Level • If elevation change is 19 inches or more and there is no ramp, runway, slope or hoist: • Employer must provide stairway & ladders • prior to work at elevated areas. • Two or more ladders or double-cleated • ladder if more than 25 employees. • At least one access point between levels must be clear at all times.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 5 X & L Basic Ladder Use • Use only for intended purpose. • Extend 3 feet above surface. • Set up at 4:1 angle. • Secure top and bottom. • Keep top and bottom areas clear. • Maintain 3-point contact. • Cannot work off ladder unless 3-point contact is maintained.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 6 X & L Basic Ladder Use • Don’t move a ladder that is occupied. • Don’t overload a ladder. • Keep up inspection and maintenance. • Don’t use on a slippery surface. • Use non-conductive near electric. • Don’t tie together to make longer. • Don’t paint wooden ladders.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 7 X & L Basic Stepladder Use • Do not use top step on stepladder. • Stepladders cannot be used leaned against a vertical wall, they must be opened and used as intended. • Use ONLY as intended by the manufacturer!
Proper Ladder Set-Up SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 8 X & L 3 foot extension above landing Top end secured Maximum extension not exceeded Bottom secured 1/4th of Working Length
Defective Ladders SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds X & L 9 Ladders must be inspected by a Competent Person. Can they be fixed? Is this a citation? Is there a hazard created here?
Access to the Roof SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds X & L 10 The Job-Made Ladder What is done right here? What could be done better?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 11 X & L Scenes We Don’t Want to See Do we really even need an OSHA standard to tell us there’s something wrong here? 1926.1053(a)(2) LADDERS Rungs, cleats and steps shall be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 12 X & L Stupid Ladder Tricks
More Stupid Ladder Tricks SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 13 X & L
.1060 Training Requirements SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 14 X & L • Your employer must train you.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 15 X & L Ladders (1926.1050 - .1053) • Common OSHA Citations: • .1053(b)(1): Extension 3 feet above landing surface • .1052(c)(1): Stairs with > 4 risers or >30” height are to have at least one handrail; stair rail on open side • .1051(a): Stair or ladder for >19” break in elevation • .1060(a): Training as necessary • .1053(b)(4): Ladder use only as intended • .1053(b)(13): Stepladder top step not to be used. How can the hazards addressed by these Standards best be corrected, controlled, or eliminated?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 16 X & L Scaffolding for Roof Access • Depending on the type of job you may use: • Frame Scaffolds • Mobile Scaffolds • Stair Towers • Ladder Jacks • Pump Jacks • Aerial Lifts such as Scissor Lift or Manlift • Under OSHA standards, these are all “elevated work platforms”.
9% of construction deaths are scaffold-related. Scaffold falls injure 29,000 workers every year. 47% of all scaffold catastrophes and deaths are caused by defective scaffolds. Any missing or defective part makes a scaffold less safe. Scaffold Hazards SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 17 X & L The danger of falling is most common.
Supported scaffolds must have these features: How Do We Know a Scaffold Is Safe? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 18 X & L
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 19 X & L Firm Foundation • Must have a foundation that is firm, square and level. • Support must bear on base plates and mudsills or other adequate, firm foundation. • Must support load without settling or displacement. • Must not use “unstable objects” as support. • Base plates are always required, even on concrete.
How to Make a Solid Foundation SUBPART Ladders and Scaffolds 20 X & L Look for firm ground and sills to distribute the scaffold load. HEEL TEST: If a 180-pound worker can dig a heel an inch into the soil, it will not support 1,600 psf.
Firm Foundation? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 21 X & L
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 22 X & L Scaffold Capacity • Support its own weight and 4 X the Maximum Intended Load (MIL). • Suspension rope & hardware, 6 X MIL. • Stall load of hoist maximum 3 X rated load. • Designed by a Qualified Person and built and loaded to design. • Some Criteria listed in Appendix 'A'
How much load do we need the scaffold to support? Scaffold Capacity SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 23 X & L • Evenly distributed: Must support 4 X Maximum Intended Load. • Supported Scaffolds: Capacity determined by the space between the uprights and plank thickness.
Capacity? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 24 X & L Can we apply any of the “capacity” criteria here?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 25 Bracing X & L Poles, legs, frames and uprights must be plumb and braced. Bracing holds parts fixed in relation to another.
You can visually check scaffold alignment. Plumb, Level, Square SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 26 X & L Plumb: Vertical members stand perpendicular to horizon. Square: Horizontal and vertical members form right angles where they connect. Level: Horizontal members are parallel to horizon.
Mixed Manufacturer’s Components SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 27 X & L Competent Person decision required. Is scaffold structural integrity maintained?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 28 X & L Keeping Upright • When suspended scaffold reaches a height that is more than 4 times its minimum base dimension, it must be restrained to keep from tipping. • Guys/Braces at horizontal members. • Guys/ties/braces in accordance with manufacturer or closest to 4:1 height. • Ties repeat at 26 feet vertical; maximum 30 feet horizontal.
Tie-Ins to the Building SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 29 X & L This 6-tier scaffold is anchored to the building with rope through windows. A solid strut anchor is better, especially if not dependent upon friction attachments at both ends.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 30 X & L Platform Construction • Platforms fully planked or decked • Maximum 1” gaps • Maximum openings of 9½” if necessary • Platforms and walkways minimum 18” wide • Ladder jack, top plate bracket, roof bracket, and pump jack scaffold at least 12” wide • Guardrails and/or Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) for < 18” wide
Fully planked with scaffold-grade wood or metal. What Makes a Safe Platform? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 31 X & L
What Is Scaffold-Grade Lumber? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 32 X & L It is free of defects. Grading Stamps identify scaffold grade lumber in many parts of the U.S. Scaffold planks must be in good repair. Look for damage that reduces width, length, thickness, or strength. Replace damaged planks immediately.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 33 X & L Platform Construction • Front edge of all platforms: • Maximum 14” from the face of the work • 3” from the face for outrigger scaffolds • 18” from face for plastering/lathing operations • Platform extension minimum 6”; maximum 12” • >10 feet, maximum 18” past support
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 34 X & L Platform Construction • Support for ends of abutted planks • Overlap minimum 12” and only over supports, unless restrained to prevent movement. • On directional changes, platform on bearer at other than a right angle laid first, and platforms at right angles over the same bearer laid second.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 35 X & L Platform Construction • Don’t paint wood, except ID on edges • Fully planked between front upright & guardrails • Don’t mix scaffold components used unless compatible & strength is maintained [Competent Person decision] • Don’t modify mixed scaffold components to make them fit [C.P. decision] • No components of dissimilar metals without Competent Person approval
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 36 X & L Platforms • Do not use front-end loader to support scaffold platforms unless they have been designed for such use. • Forklifts cannot be used to support platforms unless: • The entire platform is attached to the fork, and • The forklift is not moved horizontally while the platform is occupied.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 37 X & L DON’T BECOME A STATISTIC!! Is this in any way a safe platform?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 38 X & L Unsafe Anywhere… This is not the kind of teamwork we're looking for…
What’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 39 X & L Distribute loads evenly. Point load over uprights. Point Loading - When necessary, it should be done over uprights. Evenly distributed – A good practice! An unsafe practice!
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 40 X & L Safe Access • Must have safe access • No access by cross braces • Bottom rung not more than 24” high • From other surface if within 14" H, 24" V • Rest platforms at 35’ intervals • Safe access for erectors/dismantlers • Competent Person Decision • 22" Horizontals OK for Builders • Some end frames can be used for access.
25% of scaffold accidents happen when workers get on or get off. Safe Access SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 41 X & L If work platforms are more than 2 feet above a point of access, then stairs, ladders, or personnel hoists must be used. You must never climb on scaffold braces or frames without built-in ladders.
2 hands and 1 foot or 1 hand and 2 feet on ladder. 3-Point Climbing on Scaffold Ladders SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 42 X & L • You must face the ladder. • You cannot carry any load • that could cause you to • lose your balance. • Use a gin wheel to hoist • materials and equipment • onto the scaffold.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 43 X & L Failure to provide safe access.
Never overload: Lesser of Maximum Intended Load or rated load Inspected by Competent Person No shore or lean-to scaffolds Immediately remove, repair, or brace if found substandard No horizontal movement while occupied unless approved Maintain clearance near powerlines SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 44 X & L Using the Scaffold
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 45 X & L Using the Scaffold • No makeshift devices to increase height • The 'Drywall Bucket Rule' • No ladder to increase height except on 'large area' and: • Side thrust countered, platform secured • Ladder legs on same platform & secured • Platforms should not deflect > 1/60 of span
Erect, move, dismantle or alter only under the supervision of a Competent Person! No work on snow, ice covered platforms. Use taglines for swinging loads. Protect suspension ropes from heat, acid No work during storms or high winds. No debris accumulation on platforms. SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 46 X & L Using the Scaffold
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 47 X & L Power Line Clearance Keep 10 foot minimum unless de-energized!
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 48 X & L Lean-to Scaffolds are Prohibited The old and the new, but still a ‘Lean-To’
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 49 Fall Protection for Scaffolds X & L • Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) or guardrails are required at 10 foot height. • PFAS and guardrails are required on suspended scaffolds. • PFAS is required for erectors/dismantlers where feasible.