An Evaluative Study of the Impacts of Storytelling Activities in Building Parent-child Relationship in Hong Kong (Abstract No: 1CW0083, 10-14 June 2010) Presented by Hans Andersen Club (www.hac.org.hk) Ms. May Kwan WONG , Executive Director (email@example.com, ph: 2338 8564) Ms. Chi-Ching WONG, Project Supervisor (firstname.lastname@example.org, ph: 2338 8347)
The content Hans Andersen Club's storytelling services in Hong Kong Literature Review The Present Study Methods Results Research Limitations Discussion Recommendations
1. Hans Andersen Club's (HAC) storytelling services in Hong Kong (1) Established in 1963, HAC has been providing various services to promote parent-child storytelling in Hong Kong, especially targeting to under-privileged children and families. Total storytelling service users (2006-10): 115,000 Total no. of storytelling events (2006-10): 2,767
HAC storytelling services in HK (2) We believe that reading & storytelling can help to widen the horizon of children and their self esteem. It is also a good means for the enhancement of parent-children relationship. We aim at providing creative and professional activities related to storytelling. These include: paired-reading training of volunteers and community service.
1. HAC storytelling services in HK (3) Based on HAC history in children storytelling services over the past few years, it is important to adopt an evidence-based approach to come up with the best service planning for the future.
2. Literature Review-Overseas (1) Numerous Research and studies showed that children can gain much from storytelling: American :e.g. literacy development, social-emotional gains (Arbreton, Goldsmith, & Sheldon, 2005). European :e.g. storytelling had several functions: educational, intellectual, emotional and linguistic (Cooper, 1993 , 2007; Fiorentino & Howe, 2004 ; Riley & Burrell, 2007) Taiwan: e.g. Chinese families used personal storytelling to convey moral & social standards (Miller, Wiley, Fung , & Liang, 1997; Wang, Leichtman, & Davies, 2000)
2. Literature Review-Hong Kong (2) Pertinent studies in Hong Kong were few. Some recent studies mainly focused on children reading proficiency & literacy (e.g. Tse ,2005)
2. Literature Review(3) Most of the overseas and local studies pinpointed that storytelling have positive influences on children literacy, psycho-social development and moral education. We found that less have been written about the links between storytelling and parent-child relationship building. Relevant findings of Chinese communities were even few.
2. Literature Review(4) Since storytelling is a very common family activity, we would like to know if storytelling can enhance parent-child relationship.
Our Assumption Based on our frontline practice, we found that: Stories link parents with kids in interactive ways! Storytelling is an effective communication means! It enhances both parents & kids communication skills! While child-centered, stories provide rich sources of metaphors and help kids express their emotions. Play-based storytelling facilitates many body contact & physical intimacy among parents & kids. Storytelling encourages children reading and curiosity.
3. The Present Study (1) Aim: To evaluate the impacts of parent training of storytelling activities on building parent-child relationship in Hong Kong. Objective: to compare the difference between parents with and parents without participating in storytelling workshops in terms of parent-child relationship (with particular emphasis on intimacy, emotional expressions, communications and showing of care & concern.
3. The Present Study (2) Duration of study: Oct 09 to Nov 2009 Null Hypothesis: there is no difference in parent-child relationship between parents with and parents without participating in storytelling training programs.
4. Methods (1) 4.1 Quantitative method: questionnaire survey 4.2 Qualitative method: focus group interviews 4.3 Qualitative method: unobtrusive observation of the participants’ storytelling activities
4. Methods (2) 4.1 Quantitative questionnaire survey Procedure: from Sept 2009 to Oct 2009, we conducted a quantitative survey and 30 questionnaires were sent by post, email or by hand to the parents who have participated in our storytelling activities. (The total parent members in 2009 was 50, i.e. 60% of parents members).
4. Methods (3) Participants: 21 parents with children aged from 6-9, who have participated in HAC parent storytelling training programs which were delivered from April 2008 to Sept 2009 (Group A).
4. Methods (4) A control group (Group B): 10 questionnaires were sent by post, email & by hand to parents who have NOT participated in ANY parent storytelling workshops, but have received HAC other kinds of services. 9 replies were collected. There were 40 questionnaires in total sent out and 30 (group A: 21, group B: 9) returned. The response rate is 75 %)
4.1 Measurement: Questionnaire Design (1) Part A: With reference from “Child-Parent relationship Scale” which was developed by Pianta. R of University of Virginaia in 1992, we developed the present scale. Parents answered 12 questions that rate their opinions in intimacy, emotional expression, communications, mutual understandings & care & concern with their children.
4.1 Measurement: Questionnaire Design(2) Scaling format: 5-point scale, ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree) The total score of each questions was summed up, and the average score of the Scale for each participant was calculated as follows: Sum up all questions / total no. of questions
4.1 Measurement: Questionnaire Design(3) Part B: measuring the number and variety of storytelling activities the parents were involved. Parents reported what kinds of parent storytelling programs they have participated by ticking appropriate boxes in 3 questions. Scaling format: Yes/No (dichotomous data) The average score of each participant was calculated. Sum up all questions / the no. of questionnaire = average score
4.1 Measurement: Questionnaire Design(4) Part C : Measuring the children participation in a variety of storytelling programs which were organized by HAC. Parents reported what kinds of children storytelling programs their kids have participated by ticking appropriate boxes in 5 questions. Scaling format: Yes/No (dichotomous data) The total score of each questionnaire was sum up. Sum up all questionnaires / the no. of questionnaire = average score
4.1 Measurement: Questionnaire Design(5) Part D: measuring frequency and duration of storytelling the families were involved. Parents reported the frequency & duration they spent with their children in 5 Questions by ticking appropriate boxes. Scaling format: Yes/No(dichotomous data) & Rank Order The total score of each questionnaire was sum up. Sum up all questionnaires / the no. of questionnaire = average score
4.1 Measurement: Questionnaire Design(6) Part E: demographic data e.g. age, gender, education level, family income and so on.
4.2 Qualitative focus group interviews (1) Participants: 3 groups of parents (45 parents : 44 female, 1 male) from Sham Shui Po, Wong Tai Sin and Kwun Tong districts in Hong Kong. Selection Criteria: all have participated in HAC school-based parent storytelling training workshops from August 2008 to September 2009. The program content of the training workshops was more or less structured and similar.
4.2 Qualitative focus group interviews (2) • Procedure: A questionnaire was used at the first session to mesaure their time in parent-child sotrytelling and no. of books read per week. A semi-structured group interview was held by HAC worker at the last session of the workshop. The same questionnaire were used again to compare the difference in terms of time spent in parent-child storytelling, & no. of books read.
4.2 Qualitative focus group interviews (3) • Based on this information & a self-developed interview guidelines, HAC worker cited the questions and invited parents to express their viewpoints. Each session lasted less than one hour. It was carried out in Cantonese language and translated by the authors to English.
4.2 Qualitative focus group interviews (4) • Measurement: a pre & post test questionnaire & a list of questions were used to get the participants’ feedbacks on whether the programs : Q1: enhance parents skills in showing intimacy, understanding children emotional expression , expressing care & concern, communication skills; Q2: build up parents & children habit’s in storytelling. Q3: encourage more reading & storytelling at home. Q4: increase no. of books and hours spent in storytelling & reading at home.
4.3 Workers’ observation of the participants’ storytelling activities (1) • Participants: Parents attended the storytelling workshops which were conducted from April 2008 to Sept 2009. • Procedures: HAC worker observed the behaviours, verbal & non-verbal expressions & interactions with children.
4.3 Workers’ observation of the participants’ storytelling activities (2) • Measurement: • With a self-developed behavioural checklist, worker recorded down such data as: • No. of physical touch between parents & children; • No. of eye contact between parents & children; • No. of dialogues between parents & children; • Frequency & expressions used to describe their emotions; • Frequency & expressions used to describe their appreciation; • Communication : interactive or authoritative
5. Result of Questionnaire (1) Group A Parents participated in parent storytelling workshops which were organised by HAC N=21
5. Result of Questionnaire (2) Group A- Age range: 20-30(14%) 31-40(76%) 41-50(5%) 51+ above (5%) Gender :Female: 90% / Male:10%
5. Result of Questionnaire (3) Group A- Education: primary (4%) secondary(58%) Matriculation (20%) graduated (9%) Unknown(9%)
5. Result of Questionnaire (4) Group A- Family Total income (HK$): $10K or below (29%) $10,001-$20K (29%) $20,001-$30K (9%) $30,001-$40K (29%) Unknown (4%)
5. Result of Questionnaire (5) Group A – Work Mode: Full-time Housewife (52%) Part-time paid-job:(5%) Full-time paid-job: 40 hr/ week(38%) Unknown (5%)
5. Result of Questionnaire (6) Group A – Age range of their children (total 46): below 1(12%) 1-2 11/12 (25%) 3-4 11/12 (29%), 5-6 11/12 (16%) 7-8 11/12 (12%) 9 & above (6%)
5. Result of Questionnaire (7):Group A Part A: Parent-child Relationship Full Score =60, ranging from 12 to 60 Average Score=51.1 * frequency
5. Result of Questionnaire (8)Group A :Part B: Parents engaged in pair-reading, storyteller workshop or/and online storytelling resources (* frequency)
Part C: Frequency of Children participation in storytelling services or resource kits * Range of scores: 0-45 5. Result of Questionnaire (9) Group A
Part D: Q1: Parent-child joint participation in read-aloud storytelling activities in past 2 weeks (Yes/No) 18 Yes • Q1a: frequency (1-3 times) 8 • Q1a: frequency (4-6 times) 8 • Q1a: frequency (7 times or above) 2 5. Result of Questionnaire (10) Group A
5. Result of Questionnaire (12) Group B (Control Group) N=9 Parents received HAC other social services, but have NOT participated in parent storytelling programs.
5. Result of Questionnaire (13) Group B – Age range: 31-40(67%) 41-50(33%) Gender: Female: 89% /Male:11%
5. Result of Questionnaire (14) Group B – Education: primary (22%) form 3 (11%) secondary(34%) Matriculation (11%) graduated (22%)
5. Result of Questionnaire (15) Group B –Family Total income (HK$): $10K or below (45%) $10,001-$20K (22%) $20,001-$30K (11%) $30,001-$40K (22%)
5. Result of Questionnaire (16) Group B –Work Mode: Full-time Housewife (11%) Part-time paid-job:(33%) Full-time paid-job: 40 hr/ week(45%) Unknown (11%)
5. Result of Questionnaire (17) Group B –Age range of their children (total 14) 1-2 11/12 (7%) 3-4 11/12 (14%) 5-6 11/12 (7%) 7-8 11/12 (14%) 9 & above (58%)
5. Result of Questionnaire (18) Group B-Part A: Parent-child Relationship Full Score =60, ranging from 12 to 60 Average Score=48.7 * frequency
5. Result of Questionnaire (19) Group B Part B: Parents engaged in pair-reading, storyteller workshop or/and online storytelling resources * frequency Average scores= 0 (Control Group: Parents have NOT participated in ANY storytelling workshops organised by HAC.)
5. Result of Questionnaire (20) Group B Part C: Frequency of Children participation in storytelling services or resource kits * frequency Range of Scores: (0-5) x 9 respondents=0-45
Part D: Q1: Parent-child joint participation inread-aloud storytellingactivities in past 2 weeks (Yes/No) 4 Yes • Q1a: frequency (1-3 times) 2 • Q1a: frequency (4-6 times) 1 • Q1a: frequency (7 times or above) 1 5. Result of Questionnaire (22)Group B