Introduction to Research Methodology Dr. Masoud Hemmasi
Research Methodology- -Dr. Masoud Hemmasi • College of Business Research Director and Prof. of Mgt. & Quant. Methods • Ph. D. in Business Administration (Strategic Management), 1983 • Honors/Awards/Recognitions: • Recipient of the“Outstanding University Researcher Award” • (One of only three COB faculty who have ever received it) • Recipient of the “Manahan Family Award for Teaching Excellence” • Designated as a“Caterpillar Faculty Scholar” • Recipient of the“Outstanding College of Business Researcher Award” • Recipient of the“Outstanding MQM Department Researcher Award” • Member of Editorial Review Boards of 3 research journals • Recipient of many Outstanding Research/Best Paper Awardsat various conferences • Reviewerfor several other journals and national/international conferences • Published approx. 40 research articles in academic and professional journals • Published many chapters/articles in various books. • Presented more than 60 research papersin international/national conferences • and published them in the proceedings of those conferences • Extensive business consulting/management training experience • Caterpillar, Country Insurance & Financial Services, Hardees Enterprises, City of Bloomington, Children’s Foundation, Digital Monitoring Solutions, etc.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FO C US OF THE COURSE? Meaning of “Methodology”??? • A sub-field of epistemologywhich is, in turn, a branch of philosophy (see next slide). • Methodology is concerned with: • Methods/tools of discovering the unknown andpursuing the “truth” • Science of acquiring knowledge andestablishing its truth/validity • Methodology: “The Science (and art) of conducting science”
PHILOSOPHY means “love of wisdom” • It is the rational pursuit of the truthand nature of existence/being. • The “mother discipline” from which other scientific disciplines emerged. • IN THE BEGINNING, all systematic/rational searches of knowledge and wisdom constituted philosophy, but primarily focused on: • Ontology (nature of existence/being and man’s relationship to existence) • Cosmology and Astronomy (origin and structure/rational order of the universe) • Logic, Mathematics & Science (mathematical/logical analysis to understand nature) • Epistemology (nature of knowledge and methods of obtaining knowledge) • Spiritual/Theological Issues (especially in the Middle Ages) • Ethics and Government (man’s conduct/morality, relationship with othermen, and forms of government and their pros and cons) • TODAY, focus of philosophy includes: • Metaphysics(understanding the nature of ultimate reality) • Epistemology (nature of knowledge, its sources, and its validity) • Ethics (perspectives on right/wrong, fairness, justice, etc.) • Logic (principles of reasoning and rational argumentation) • Aesthetics (the theory of the nature of art, beauty, etc.) Aristotle & Plato at the Academy of Athens, by Raphael (1510), Fresco, Vatican
INTRODUCTION: MAN’S QUEST FOR ANSWERS Man’s existential questions regarding: • The nature of his existence, his place in this world, and the way his world works, how much control over destiny,what is the truth, and how to go about finding out the truth. • The different means that have been employed to answer these fundamental questions: • Appeal to intuition, self-evident, common sense, authority, tradition, superstition, religious faith, majority judgment, etc. • Philosophy(speculative thought based on rational analysis and logical/objective reasoning, to arrive at conclusions based on logical necessity) • Theology(philosophical speculations to explain/justify religious dogma as offered by divine revelation—religion through a philosophical lens) • Modern Science(developing explanations of natural phenomena based on rational and objective analysis of sensible/observational evidence)
A Historical Journey Through The Evolution of Epistemology • The Focus of this Presentation: • To examine the historical forces that have shaped modern man’s perspectives on epistemology. • “Episteme” (Greek word): • Organized knowledge(science) • Epistemology(theory of knowledge, what is true knowledge and the proper ways of getting at it) • The nature of knowledge (What constitutes true knowledge?) • Its sources and methods(How it is supposed to be acquired?) • Its Validity(The ways to establishing its truth?) • The appropriate methods for advancing science/knowledge
A Journey ThroughThe Evolution of Epistemology • The Genesis of written knowledge goes back toMesopotamia (today’s Iraq) • THE VERY BEGINNING-- Emergence of Writing & Alphabet: • World’s first writing systems3300 BC: • First standard alphabet1100 BC: • Symbols to represent vowels,750 BC
Important Discoveries in Numbering Systems: • Positional notation in numbers discovered around 3500 BC • Mesopotamia (by Babylonians & Sumerians) • Base of 60 • Zeronot understood • The concept of 0 properly understood/used 350 BC • In Mesopotamia (by Babylonians) • Then by Greeks • 0 and the decimal system, Hindus around 1200 years ago(AD 750) • But, in Europe, not until the 1100’s (when Arabic numerals were finally adopted) through translations of the works of Khawrazmi(Iran, 780-850). THE VERY BEGINNINGS
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Through Philosophical, Religious, and Political Crossroads • Organized knowledge and the modern scientific methods owe their development directly to three major knowledge explosions in philosophy and science: • In Greecearound 6th century BC. • In the Muslim World(especially by Persians/Iranians)around 8th-12th century. • Began in Europe during the 16th & 17th century scientific revolution and the 18th century enlightenment era (“the age of reason”).
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Through Philosophical, Religious, and Political Crossroads • First Knowledge Explosion--The Greek Domination: • From 600 BC through the 16th century, the development of virtually all philosophy and science was dominated (or greatly influenced) by the work of ancient Greek philosophers : Raphael (1483-15 ), Academy of Athens, Fresco, Vatican
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Through Philosophical, Religious, and Political Crossroads • Thales (625-546 BC) --Birth of Science/Philosophy: • Explanation for how the material world was constructed. • Without resorting to supernatural explanations. • Was the first to assume: • World is an ordered entity, intelligible, & explainable in terms of one or more underlying elements. • Water--the single entity/element that underlies everything else in the world. • His work marked the birth of science! • Soon after, other Greeks began thinking about the world in similar ways.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Through Philosophical, Religious, and Political Crossroads • Pythagoras(570- 495 BC)—A Mathematical World: • First to propose amathematically constructed universe • intelligible in mathematical terms • Continuation of his work by other Pythagorean philosophers • Socrates (470 - 400 BC) • Mainly concerned with ethics and politics. • NOT interested in scientific research, but viewed knowledge a virtue. • Believe: Just as the human person is guided by the power of his mind, the world is also guided by a knowing power that operates the universe in an orderly fashion based on some natural laws.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Plato & Aristotle in Academy of Athens, Raphael, Fresco, Vatican With Plato and Aristotle, a long-standing philosophical debatebegan surrounding the theory of knowledge,centering around the following issues: • The nature of existence. • Objects exist independent of our mind and perception(materialism), vs • Material objects exist only because we perceive them(idealism). • The nature of reality. What is real? What constitutes primary reality? • The material things of the experiencible “phenomenalworld”as they appear to our senses (e.g., beautiful things, or various individual cats)—Realism vs • The transcendent, changeless, perfect prototypes of worldly entities of the “noumenal world” (Plato’s Idea/Forms/Universals) as they actually are beyond our mind/senses (e.g., beauty, or what it is to be a cat)—Idealism That is, the question of whether there is a duality/distinction between: • The noumenal world: The real world of perfect Platonic entities (Ideas/Forms); the world as it actually is, and • The phenomenal world: The experiencible world of imperfect material objects (“particulars”); the world as it appears to our senses. (Continued…)
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Plato & Aristotle in Academy of Athens, Raphael, Fresco, Vatican • The nature of knowledge. What constitutestrue knowledge? • Does knowledge pertains to understanding of the experienciblematerial objects of the natural world(i.e., “Particulars”)? Or • Does it pertain to understanding of the intelligible, transcendent,changeless entities/concepts of the noumenal world(i.e., “Universals”) • The Source of knowledge. • Knowledge is a priori(inborn/innate). That is, it is already planted in the mind prior to our birth and, thus, we only have to uncover it (Rationalism). • We are born with a blank slate (tabula rasa) and, thus, knowledge is only attainable through interaction with the material world--through experience and sense perception(Empiricism) • Method of acquiring knowledge. • Should knowledge be acquired intellectually through contemplation, reasoning, and logical analysis in the mind (Rationalism)? Or • Should it be acquired experientially through careful observation, experimentation, and sense perception (Empiricism)?
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Plato & Aristotle in Academy of Athens, Raphael, Fresco, Vatican Plato’s(427-347 BC) • A philosophical idealist and rationalist • Intuitive and spiritual • God being perfect architected/arranged/designed a perfect world. • So, the entitiesof this real“noumenal world” must be perfect/changeless. • Platocalls theseperfect prototypes (transcendent/ideal entities)“Ideas/Forms”. • Characteristics created by God, in which material beings/objects partake.Examples: Cat (or universal “catness”) vs this or that particular cat,virtue vs virtuous individuals, beauty vs beautiful objects,, etc. • But, observable objects (“particulars”) of the experiencible ”phenomenal world”are NOT perfect (since many of each exist, & multiplicity rules out perfection). • So, theymust not have primary reality and must be just illusory/shadowy imperfect reflections/copies of the real thing (i.e., Ideas/Forms). • This is why the experience-based understanding of these material things (“particulars”) is unreliable and subject to disagreement. • As such, such an understanding amounts to mere OPINIONS. • OPINIONis just assumptions about reality based on appearances. • TRUE KNOLEDGE, being certain and infallible (there is only one truth),must pertain to the perfect reality represented by Ideas/Forms.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Plato(427 BC - 347 B C ) • Therefore, real knowledge involves concepts/definitions, NOT objects. • Since true knowledge CANNT be learned through interacting with/ experiencing the material world(phenomenal world), then, it: • must be (like in mathematics) deduced intuitively/intellectuallythrough contemplationandintellectual reasoningin the mind. • Where we are NOT hand-strung by physical/perceptual limitations. • Must be brought to us from an earlier existence (it is inborn/a priori). Implications? • In short, Plato was prejudiced against studying the observable/material world • Saw reality as being intelligible; not sensible. • Saw knowledge as pertaining to abstract concepts, NOT sensible objects. • He dismissed validity of the senses, and the role of observations, in understanding the real world and in advancing true knowledge. • We must have an immortal soul that carries our a-priori Knowledge from an earlier existence to our current one. • The soul is exposed to reality before entering the body, but that knowledge is blunted/blurred as soul transmigrates into new corruptible bodies . • Thus, obtaining knowledge involves rediscover what had been already known. • Plato’s belief in immortality and transmigration of the soul shaped much of his philosophical dualism regarding body vs. soul, reality vs appearance, knowledge vs opinion, ideas vs sensible objects.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Plato & Aristotle in Academy of Athens, Raphael, Fresco, Vatican Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) • Rational(based on logical necessity)& Naturalistic(Note his hand…) • Stressed validity of the senses • Recognizes importance of observation preceding deduction • Introduced “categories” • 10 characteristics (categories) for identifying, categorizing, and understanding entities: • substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, state,action, and affection • “Substance”(i.e., matter) and its independent existence • All other characteristics (including Plato’s “Ideas”) exist through a substance(i.e., through concrete particulars--e.g., beauty through a beautiful object). • Substance (concrete particulars) represent the primary reality. • Basis for KNOWLEDGE(in order to understand Idea/Forms, you need to observe concrete particulars) • CONCLUSION: Understanding the natural world constitutes valid knowledge, and can be attained through sense perceptionand observation of particulars.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Aristotle (384-322 BC) Raphael, Fresco, Vatican Aristotle (Continued): • It is through the ability to reason & to articulate that mantranslates observations (sense experiences) into useful knowledge. • To avoid confusion/sophistry/fallcious discourse, reasoningmust be logical and follow strict and proper rules. • So, he developed the “science of logic”—the rules of scientific thinking/reasoning known as Aristotelian syllogism: • A formal system of logical argumentation based on the premisethat every truth followed logically from other truths, and thatyou could not miss a step by jumping from truth A to truth C. • Start with self-evident axioms (simple & obviously true statements). • Combine them using rules of logic to arrive at theorems (proven propositions) which are then used in combination with other axioms and theorems to arrive at new theorems. • For example, one simple form of such deductive process consists of two premises (axioms) and a conclusion (theorem): (i) Every person is a mortal. (Major Premise) (ii) Every Greek is a person. (Minor Premise) (iii) Every Greek is mortal. (Conclusion) • Centuries later, used as the basis for the development of first theIslamic and, 2-3 centuries later, Christian “Scholastic Theology.”? ? ?
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Scholastic Theology: Using Aristotle’s philosophy and system of logic as a means to develop rational explanations for religious dogma. • Before the scholastic movement, early Christianity’sAugustinian theologyhad been built on the more spiritual Platonic philosophy • Thus, stressed primacy of the supernatural world and, thus, understanding of the spiritual world of perfect, transcendent,divinePlatonic “Ideas” (the universals), discounting theknowledge of the natural world. • Christianity’s later Aristotelianperspective shifted the epistemological focus to the primacy of the materialobjects of the natural world (the particulars) and, thus, legitimized pursuit of such secular/worldly knowledge. How did this transition from the Augustinian-Platonic to the Aristotelian- Scholastic theology come about? A REVIEW OF the HISTORICAL UNDERPININGS….
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Rise of Christianity, Fall of Rome, & The Dawn of Europe’s Dark Ages: • Macedonians conquered Greece (338 BC) • Subsequently, Alexander’s (356-323 BC) conquest of Persian Empire and beyond ushered in the Hellenistic era. • The Intellectual center of the world gradually moved to Alexandria, Egypt. • Alexandria’s specialized science/philosophy(e.g., Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy, Galien, Plotinus, …, Hypatia) • Romans conquered Greece (264-146 BC). Expansion of Christianity:InAD 312, Emperor Constantine • Accepted Christianity • End of persecution of Christians. • Establishment of the Eastern Empire (Byzantium) withConstantinople as its capital. • The “persecuted” quickly turn into the “persecutors”
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • AD 395--Christianity the empire’s official religion. • 4th - 5th cent., Christianity penetrates every aspect of the Roman state. • End of science/philosophy in the West. • The Church becomes Roman Empire’s leading institution. • The seed of mixing religion and politics. The Fall of Rome: • Invasions by nomadic barbarians (Germanic tribes) in the 4th & 5th centuries • Result: Europe breaks apart into kingdoms of various Germanic tribes
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Many blamed Christians/Christianity for undermining Rome’spagan Gods and her Greco-Roman cultural values. • St. Augustine’s(358-430) comes to Christianity’s defense • Theology stresses the “Original Sin”, discounting man’s worth & dignity • Converted from Manichaeism • Manichaeism’s Dualism: Soul being good, and body being evil. • Augustine’s dualismof “City of Man”vs“City of God” : • Rome is earthly and materialistic(“City of Man”). So what if it fell? • “City of God”is spiritual & cannot be conquered. • Earthly power and glory in the “City of Man” are nothing compared to the glory of the spiritual and heavenly“City of God.” • A call on the Christian Europe to build a Heavenly City on the ashes of fallen of Rome.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Augustine’s theology, found an ally in the Platonic philosophy • Primacy of transcendental Forms/Ideas • Inferiority of the sensible material world vs the eternal supernatural world. • Immortality of the soul • Also influenced by Plotinus, pagan founder of Neo-Platonism (3rd century, Alexandria, Egypt) • Amplified religious/mystic aspects of Plato’s philosophy • Fused Plato with eastern mysticism (illumination/emanation philosophy). • Plato’shighest Form “Good” or“the One” emanated everything from itself, in the order of diminishing completeness/perfection: • First, created the ”nous” (mind/intelligence). • Next, created the soul. • Then created nature (the world of material objects). • Then endowed nature with life and soul. • The soul, being chained to the body (a lower Form), longs to return to its original source. • Virtue, meditation, cleansing oneself from bodily desires, and freedom from dependence on material things can help soul ascend to reunite with “the One.” • So, contemplating God must be man’s mission in life.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Augustine’s Epistemology(inspired by Plato’s philosophy): St. Augustine establishes theology as the foundation for epistemology. • Discounting the present life and physical world (i.e., City of Man). • His Theory of knowledge:“Have faith in order to understand the truth” • Faith and revelation (NOT rational and autonomous human reasoning) became the basis for a new epistemology. • The secular rationality of the Greek became irrelevant to salvation. • The natural world (City of Man) held no significance in comparison with the spiritual reality of the City of God • Natural phenomena were subservient to “divine providence” • No urgencyin studying/understanding it.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology The defeated Christian Europe saw the allure of the Heavenly City and responded to St. Augustine’s call. • The long obsession with God • End of secular/creative thought/activity Western Europe took its 600-year plunge into its Dark Ages. In the Eastern Empire: • Emperor Justinian comes to power (6th century). • Active suppression of other religions • Full marriage of Church & State • Philosophy is considered corruptive; libraries are ransacked, book burned, centers of learning closed (e.g., Academy of Athens). • Migration of many remaining philosophers/intellectuals to theneighboring PersianEmpire.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Shortly after . . . Birth of Islam (613 AD) & Expansion of the Islamic Empire: • Quickly expands east and west (632-750) • Swept away enormous chunks of land including land from: • Persian Empire (e.g., Iran, Mesopotamia, parts of Turkey, parts of Syria, Azerbaijan, Caucasus, Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan) • Byzantine Empire(e.g., Palestine, Syria, Egypt, North Africa) • Spain, Sicily, and Southern Italy. • Arab conquerors were not great fans of philosophy and science. • With Roman Empire falling to barbarians & Persian Empire to Arabs, philosophy died in most parts of the world (until mid-8th century).
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology Transition to the “Golden Age of Islam”: • A revolt in the mid 8th Century: • Coming to power of a new ruling clan • New capital: Baghdad(at that time, a part of Persia/Iran) • A Persian bureaucracy replacing the Arab ruling aristocracy. • By the end of the century a theologically more tolerant climateconducive to intellectual activities emerges • The new political-theological climate leads to what is known as ”The Golden Age of Islam”: The Second Knowledge Explosion
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology The Second Knowledge Explosion (Mid 9th- 13th century): • The Golden Age of Islam and Persian Revival: • Emergence of a “rational” philosophical- theological movement • Adherence to liberal theological interpretations to justifyscientific/philosophical work • Establishment of House of Science/Philosophy/Wisdom • Gathering Books and scholars from all over the world toengage in scientific & philosophical works. • Translation into Arabic of texts especially from Greek, Persian, Soryani, Indian, and Byzantine civilizations. • Rediscovery of Aristotle’s works by Muslim scholarswho wrote extensive commentaries on them.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Results of “Peripatetic”Muslim scholars (e.g., Farabi, Avicenna, Razi, Khwarazmi, Biruni, Khayyam, Averroes, Al-Kindi): • Revival of Aristotle’srational philosophy & his focus on science of nature. • Development of a rational theology,reconciling faith with reason & giving religious legitimacy for philosophical and scientific work. • More importantly, over the next 300-400 years, productionof a wealth of new philosophical, scientific, & encyclopedic worksin: • logic, mathematics, medicine, pharmacy, chemistry, astronomy, mineralogy, geology, optics, music, politics, and psychology. • e.g., The Book of Healing, The Cannon of Medicine, etc. • Let’s see some examples of such contributions…
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology (Source: George Sarton, History of ScienceSeries, Vol. I-III, 1927-1948) • Khwarazmi, Mohammad (Latin name: Algoritmi)(Iran, 780-850) • Founder of Algebra, mathematician, astronomer, geographer, & cartographer • Developer of the first systematic solution to linear and quadratic equations • An early pioneer in spherical trigonometry. • Latin translations of his work in the 12th century introduced the Hindu decimal numeral system to Europe. That was the origin of the current use of Arabic Numerals in the West. • Al-Kindi, Abu Yusef Ishaq (Latin name: Alkindus)(Iraq, 801-873) • Philosopher, scientist, physician, astronomer. logician, musician, pharmacologist, psychologist, meteorologist, and cryptologist • The first to introduce the Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Muslim world. But his work was eventually eclipsed by names such as Farabi and Avicenna . • Farabi, Abu Nasr (Latin name: Alpharabius) (Iran, 870-950) • A rationalist Aristotelian philosopher with over 100 works in philosophy, mathematics, chemistry, physics, cosmology, logic, music theory, psychology, music therapy, political philosophy, and sociology. • The first to conduct experiments regarding existence of vacuum. • The first to address social psychology in his writings on political philosophy. • He “had great influence on science and philosophy for several centuries.” • He was widely regarded to be second only to Aristotle in knowledge” (as is implied by his honorific title of "the Second Teacher").
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Razi, Mohammad Zakariya(Latin name: Rhazes & Rasis) (Iran, 865-925) • A secular physician, chemist, and philosopher • Credited with numerous “firsts” in medical research and chemistry including: • Developing the distillation process (thus the word alcohol) • Discovery of numerous compounds (e.g., kerosene, and ethanol) • The first to differentiate smallpox from measles, father of pediatrics, and a pioneer in neurosurgery and ophthalmology • Biruni, Abu Rayhan (Latin name: Alberonius) (Iran, 973-1048) • Described as “one of the greatest scientists of all times.” • Pioneering contributions in philosophy, astronomy, epistemology, physics, mathematics, anthropology, comparative sociology, history, geography, medicine, and psychology. • The first anthropologist, founder of indology • The first exponents of the experimental method of scientific investigation. • Al-Biruni Crater on the moon is named in his honor for his contributions to Astronomy, • Ibn Sina or Abu Ali Sina (Latin name: Avicenna) (Iran, 980-1037) • Describes as “one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history,” • A poet and a statesman with 450 treatise on medicine, astronomy, chemistry, geology, psychology, logic, paleontology, mathematics, and physics. • The first to: correctly document the anatomy of the human eye (& such eye afflictions as cataracts), discover contagious and sexually transmitted diseases, introduce quarantine, describe symptoms & complications of diabetes, and describe workings of the heart as a valve. • The first to introduce experimental medicine, randomized controlled trials, and efficacy tests. • Epistemologically, he criticizes the Aristotelian method and, in its place, developed a "method of experimentation” as a means for conducting scientific inquiry. • His “The canon of Medicine,” an immense 14-volume encyclopedia of medicine,remained the standard medical text in universities throughout Europe untilthe end of the 18th century. Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, 1484, P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library University of Texas
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Khayyam, Omar • (Iran, 1048-1131) • Recognized as “the author of the most important treatise on algebra before modern times.” • The first to derived general geometric method for solving cubic equations and equations of higher order. • Measured the length of the solar year as 365.24219858156 days and reformed the solar calendar. • His “Jalali” calendar was more accurate (error = 1 day in 5000 years) than the Gregorian calendar developed 500 years later (error = 1 day in 3300 years). • Many believe that he may have proposed a heliocentric theory well before Copernicus. • Edward FitzGerald (1809–83), made Khayyám the most famous poet of the East in the West through his celebrated translation of Khayyám's quatrains (“Rubaiyat”) • Epistemologically, he supported the view that laws of nature explained all phenomena of observed life. • Averroes/IbnRushd(Latin name: Averroes) • (Cordoba, Spain, 1120-1198) • An Andalusían Muslim polymath and philosopher who has been described by some scholars as the “founding father of secular thought in Western Europe” and "one of the spiritual fathers of Europe," where his school of philosophy, “Averroism,” had a strong influence on Christian philosophers through the 16th century. • Over 20,000 pages of works covering philosophy, logic, jurisprudence, psychology, politics, music theory, astronomy, geography, mathematics, physics, celestial mechanics, and medicine, including a seven-volume medical encyclopedia, known in Latin as “Colliget.” • Argued that one cannot suffer from smallpox twice, fully understood the function of the retina, and suggested the existence of Parkinson's disease. • The first to define and measure force in mechanics and to introduce into physics the notion that bodies have a inherent resistance to motion, later dubbed 'inertia' by Johannes Kepler. • Epistemology: Saw no conflict between religion and philosophy and believed in two kinds of knowledge. First, the knowledge of truth of religion based in faith, that could not be tested. Second. the knowledge that is based in philosophy, which is reserved for an elite few who have the intellectual capacity to understand it. • The asteroid"8318 Averroes" was named in his honor. • A movie depicting the life and times of Averroes was released in 1998, titled “Destiny.”
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • The Demise of Science & Philosophy in the Muslim World: • More conservative rulers in Baghdad who supported the agenda of fundamentalist clerics • Emergence of an activist traditionalist theological faction who concocted a theology that used Aristotelian deductive logic to confirm orthodox religious dogma and combat secular philosophy. • Net Results: • Denying any role for human reason/discretion in interpreting theological edicts • A complete ban on all secular philosophical/scientific endeavors
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • By the 10th century, virtually all philosophical & scientific activity had migrated to Iran (in the east) and Spain (in the west) where it flourished for another 200 years or so. • Invasions of both, the Islamic and Byzantine empires by Turkish tribes of Central Asia. • Turks conquered Iran and Asia minor, enforcing conservative religious policies. • Influence of “Ghazali,” a brilliant Iranian philosopher (who turned to conservative theology/mysticism). • Attacks by Mongol (1218) and Tatar (1370) herds • Genghiz Khan & Tamerlane
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • The Prelude to Europe’s AWAKENING: • After Rome’s fall, gradual disappearance of all signs of prosperity and civilization in Western Europe • Migration of the population out of cities to rural areas. • Growth of monasticism(e.g., Benedictine order) in the 6th century • Key role of monks and monasteries in preservation and reproduction of books and manuscripts from the classical period. • Charlemagne (Charles I, 742-814) united much of Western Europe • Carolingian Renaissance • Crowned “Emperor of Rome” by the Pope • The seed of the “Holy Roman Empire”was planted.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • The Prelude to Europe’s AWAKENING: • Protracted competition for political supremacy between future Popes and emperors. • Consolidation of the papal power over the clergy throughout Western Europe by Gregory VII • Peaking of the power of Papacy through the end of the 14th century. • Subsequent results: • Gradual corruption of the Church officials • Gradual decline in Papacy’s moral authority • Eruption into the 16th century Reformation movement and subsequent religious wars • 17th century Call for religious toleration • The 18th century separation of church & state in the U.S. constitution
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • EUROPE’S AWAKENING & TURNING POINT--THE NEW MILLENIUM: • New hope and optimism: surviving the millennium and the apocalyptic doom’s day prophecy • Agricultural innovations and economic boom of 11th century: • Renewed confidence in the capacity of human intelligence • Surplus agricultural products and trade • Enormous rise in education among clergy • Rise of Gothic Churches • Rediscovery & revival of secular Roman Law and its incorporation into canon law • The Crusades and exposure to the philosophical work of the Muslim scholars • EMERGENCE OF WESTERN/CHRISTIAN SCHOLASTICISM: • Translations of philosophical and scientific works of Muslim scholars and Greek Classics from Arabic to Latin • Spread of above Latin translations in Europe and development of Christianity’s Scholastic Theology.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Popularity of Scholasticism & emergence of church-sponsored universities--the spread of learning/literacy to people outside of the church • Establishment of Inquisition (1184) to combat many emerging heresies prompted by popularity of/curiosity in religious doctrine. • Creation and educational rivalry of the two leading orders of friars(1200s) • The Platonist Franciscans and Aristotelian Dominicans • Western Scholasticism & Schoolmen: • A movement to reconcile faith/religion with reason/philosophy. • Began in the 12th century • Peaked with Thomas Aquinas (13th century). • PREMISE: Nothing in the revelation is contrary to reason.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Early scholasticism (12th century)—emphasis on the rules of logical discourse and confidence in the power of human intelligence • Used Aristotelian logic and dialectics/ disputation as the means to develop rational explanations/justification for the teachings of the scripture (used reasoning to defend articles of faith). • Later, Thomas Aquinas addedAristotle’snaturalistic philosophy (interest in the working of nature) and justifiedpursuit of worldly knowledge as a means to appreciate God and his creation. • Thus, instigated a departure from the anti-physical, world-denying, Augustinian-Platonic thinking that had dominated earlier Christian theology. • St. THOMAS AQUINAS (1224-1274): A Dominican Priest and Christianity’s greatest scholastic theologian • Deeply influenced by Muslim philosophy, especiallyearlier works of two PersianschoolmenGhazali and Avicenna.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Aquinas “converted” Aristotleto Christianity, and Christianity to Aristotelian values. • OUTCOME: For the next 300 years, Aristotle & the Scripture became the main sources of answer to virtually all questions, worldly and divine. • Thomas Aquinas’ Epistemology: • Aquinas, was a philosophical realistfor whom sensible things in the world (i.e., Particulars): • Had a substantial reality of their own • Were NOT unreal shadowy replications of Platonic Ideas. • He saw no conflict between the natural and spiritual worlds.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • He argued. . . • Similarly, intelligence is the greatest gift to man from God • The natural world, having been created by God, is worthy of observation/understanding in its own right • So, using one’s god-given intellect to studyGod’s handiwork(natural world) is indeed an honorable human endeavor. • Thus, faith and knowledge enriched one another • Faith is not in opposition to knowledge • With the above argument, Aquinas provided religious legitimacy forthe pursuit of worldly knowledge. • RESULT: A surge of intellectual activity (1200s-1300s)
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Secularization of Philosophy and Science—14th Century: • Proliferation of scholastic works and irreconcilable conflicts between some philosophical reasons with Christian doctrine. • Two centuries earlier, Averroes (a prominent Muslim philosopher) had proposed a doctrine of”double-truth universe.” • That perhaps the realm of reason is outside the sphere of theology(the two are mutually exclusive). • Strong appeal and following of Averroism among many 14th century Christian Scholastics, notably William of Ockham (Occam). • A Franciscan friar, and best and most notable scholastics after Aquinas • Best known for a principle called “Occam’s Razor”? • “Nature loves simplicity.”
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Ockham’s Epistemology & Secularization of Science/philosophy • William of Ockham--a philosophical“Nominalist”: • Only the “particulars” (concrete individual beings) are real and exist. • The Platonic “Forms/Universals” are just names/conceptual fictionsthat exist only in the human mind. • Plato’s“Cat” (“Catness”) is NOT a distinct real entity. • Rather, “Cat” (“Catness”) is just a term referring to a shared similarity among many individual cats. • Knowledge/science only pertains to sensible things • And, sensible things are individuals (particulars). • There are only two ways for acquiring knowledge about this world: • Through self-evident logical propositions (like in mathematical) or • Through sensory observation of concrete particulars.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Ockham stressed: • There is no obligatory connections between God’s freely created universe and man’s desire for a perfect rational world. • Mixing the two constitutes imposing man’s mental limitations onto God • God has absolute freedom to create anything in anyway he pleased. • Including imperfect particulars of the natural world • Man is given two distinct realities, each with its own separate logic: • The reality of God, given by revelation, and • The reality of the nature/empirical world, as experienced by man. • Empirical and rational analyses are the right methodologies for understanding the worldly phenomena • An, this type of understanding constitutes true knowledge
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • BUT, rational analysis is NOT the right means for drawing conclusions about things beyond the senses (i.e., the supernatural) • These could only be revealed by faith, not by reason. • So, while man’s ability to reasoncan help him understandnature,faithwill remain the only means to understand God & the divine. • Thus, Ockham dismissed spirituality as a legitimate motivefor pursuing knowledge. • While the work of Aquinas had united faith and reason,Ockham’s work severed that relationship. • He set scholars free to pursue their own secular interests onissues pertaining to this world and to the human experience.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • The Trend Toward Expansion of Secularization (Decline of Church Influence): • Challenges to Political Power of the Pope • The Black Plague (1347-1352) • Transition to rag paper • Empowerment of people with greater role in religion • Weakening of the feudal economic system, emergence of anurban merchant class. • The Great Schism (1377-1417) and Decline of Papacy’s Moral Authority:
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • The Broadening of the Secularization Trend: • Rebirth of Humanism (1300s)??? • Initially focused on knowledge of the Greco-Roman literary classics • Secular writings dealing with the lives of ordinary people • Later developed into the works of socio-political humanistsof the 1500s • Reclaiming the dignity of man and his relevance/importance in worldly human affairs • Man, by virtue of his rationality, did not need to be “shepherded” all the time. • No conflict between piety and wanting to grow/develop, live a good life, pursue success, appreciate beauty, live in a just society, etc.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • The 1400s: • Invention of the printing press • Fall of Constantinople, Creation of Ottoman Empire, & Migration of Greeks to Western Europe • “Donation of Constantine” proven a Forgery • Rise of Nationalism and Modern Nation-States • Voyages of Discovery
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • The Arrival of Renaissance (Mid 1400s) and Birth of Modernity: • A synthesis of the above philosophical, theological, political, social, and economic forces/changes, culminated in: • 1. The Italian Renaissance 2. Reformation 3. Scientific Revolution 4. THE Third Knowledge Explosion • The Renaissance started in Italy’s independent city-states • What does the word “Renaissance” mean? Why is it called that? • Initially about the “rebirth” of the classical culture • But also became about celebrating the individual. • Renaissance embraced and celebratedHumanist values of youth, beauty, success, & wealth.
History of Scientific Knowledge: Evolution of Epistemology • Renaissance Transformed Artistic & Intellectual Expressions: • Renaissance quickly became the age of intellectual & artistic creativity. • Art & literature began to reflect the fact that Man was once again claiming the center stage in human affairs. • Pushing religion increasingly into the background. • Machiavelli put forth a secular political philosophy. • Renaissance transformed the Papacy into a virtually secular institution. • This greatly contributed to a backlash against the Papacy. • Renaissance petered out in Italy, and gradually moves to Europe’s northern states: • Reformation • Sack of Rome • Counter-Reformation, Revival of Inquisition, and suppression of free thought.