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Political Culture PowerPoint Presentation
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Political Culture

Political Culture

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Political Culture

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  1. Political Culture The widely-shared beliefs, values, and norms that citizens share about their government. Characteristics (Shared values) Individualism Liberty Equality Rule of law Democracy Consensual political culture

  2. Liberty Individualism Make your own way! Equality Of Opportunity, not the result.

  3. Conflict between Liberty and Capitalism Government Response Progressive Era: Anti-Trust Laws (control corporations), Labor laws/regulations

  4. Value Changes during 1930's Great Depression Role of govt changed 2nd BOR Healthcare Today? FDR & New Deal

  5. Distrust of Government Has grown through time. “I am not a crook” Partisanship/ Divided govt. Vietnam Watergate Cost of elections Scandals

  6. Political Efficacy Internal Has stayed steady through time One’s own understanding and competence of government. External Has declined through time Belief one can have an impact on government

  7. Political Tolerance Free speech Allow others to govern Proclaim to be more tolerant than we really are Opposites will deny basic rights

  8. Alexis De Tocqueville Democracy in America • Abundant and fertile land • Countless opportunities to acquire land/make living • Lack of feudal society • Independent spirit

  9. Types of Public Opinions Fluid Latent Stable Polarized Consensus Salient

  10. Measurement of Public Opinion By Elections By Polls • Uses: • Inform the public • Inform candidates • Inform office holders • Exit polls

  11. Construction of Scientific Polls Gallup Statistically Insignificant? • Representative Sample • Random Sampling • Respondent’s Knowledge • Objective Wording • Accuracy: Straw Poll Romney 48% Obama 50% + or - 5% margin of error

  12. Abuses of Polls "Horse Race Journalism" Early projections (Florida) Pandering

  13. Political Socialization Process in which people acquire their political beliefs 1. Family (ideology: conservative/liberal) • Strongest • Fairly equal influence of mother and father • When differ, associate with closest parent • Impact of growing number of Independents • Higher income More conservative and supportive of Republicans • Lower incomes- More liberal and supportive of Democrats 2. Income

  14. Conflicting results • College students today v. past. • College students more liberal than general population • Most prestigious- most liberal 3. Schools 4. Race Whites: More conservative (more Republican) Blacks: More liberal (strongest support of Democratic Party) >90% Hispanics: Cubans v. Mexican Americans Asians:

  15. Protestant: More conservative generally • Evangelicals more on social issues and econ • Catholic: Traditionally more liberal (Economic) than on social issues (Abortion issue) • Jewish: Most liberal (Strong support for the Democratic Party) 5. Religion

  16. Gender • 1900’sconservative • 1992 Year of the Woman • Clinton and Soccer Moms • Gender Gap: Sex sensitive issues, compare to past • Security Moms • NASCAR Dads Geographic Region • Coastal Cities: environment • Urban areas: immigrants, minorities • Solid South • Rust Belt • Rural areas (religion?)

  17. Political Party affiliation Strongest predictor Increase in split-ticket voting Decrease in straight ticket voting

  18. Political Ideology Set of beliefs and values that shape a person’s view 1. Classic Liberalism • Limited role of govt. • Govt. seen as chief threat to liberty • Protect property rights 18th Century

  19. 2. Modern Liberalism New Deal Liberalism 20th Century • Expanded role of govt. (New Deal) • Corporations seen as chief threat to liberty • Need govt. to “smooth out the rough edges of capitalism” • Role: protect people’s well being

  20. Neo-Liberals Less likely to rely upon govt. to solve problems Not as involved as “New Deal” liberals Clinton Edwards

  21. Conservatism Essentially Classic Liberalism Resurgence since late 70's. • Reagan/Bush 41/ Bush 43 • Strength in formally “Solid South” • Emphasis on private sector to solve problems, not government • Strong support for tax cuts • More social control

  22. Neo-Conservatives (The New "Right") Social Policy Economic Policy • Prayer in school • Anti-Gay Marriage • Anti-Abortion • Emphasis on “free market” • Free enterprise Few regulations In all cases

  23. Compassionate Conservatism More moderate brand of conservative President Bush Stance on abortion

  24. Socialism Divide Wealth Equally

  25. Populist Libertarianism

  26. How ideological are Americans? American Voter Study 42% Group Benefit 12% Ideologues 22% No issue content 24% Nature of the times

  27. Political Participation and Voter Behavior Types of Participation Run for office Vote Work for a campaign Influence others Give money to campaign Stickers and buttons Attend Political meeting

  28. Voter Turnout 52% of all eligible voters 70% of Registered voters 30% in Midterm elections

  29. Comparison with other countries Europe U.S. Why?

  30. Expanding Suffrage • Property restrictions (Andrew Jackson) • Race: 15th Amendment • Women: 19th Amendment • Income: 24th Amendment • Literacy: Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Minimum age of 21: 26th Amendment Jim Crow Laws Impact of expansion Less voting power per person States set current qualifications For voting requirements

  31. Reasons for low voter turnout Institutional barriers (Voting is a linkage institution) • Registration (motor voter Bill) • Long Ballot: Excessive number of issues to vote on • Type of election: General, Primary, midterm, state • Difficulty in obtaining absentee ballots • Too many elections: Ballot fatigue • Weekday, non-holiday voting

  32. Political Barriers • Lack of political efficacy • Dissatisfaction with candidates, parties, etc. • Weakness of parties’ ability to mobilize voters Don’t like either, so why vote?

  33. Demographic Barriers • Education: Level is highest predictor • Income: High vs. Low • Age: 18-24 lowest 45 and up highest • Race: White vs. minorities • Cross-cutting cleavages • Religious Involvement

  34. Characteristics Of those likely to Vote Education wealth Age Race

  35. In your opinion, what is the single most influential reason for not voting? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________