The State of K-12 Student Achievement in Mathematics, 2006Why new Mathematics Standards?Florida, Math Matters! Mary Jane Tappen, Deputy Chancellor, K-12 Public Schools Todd Clark, Deputy Chief, Bureau of Instruction and Innovation Patrick W. Wright, K-12 Mathematics Program Specialist Keith Sheets, Program Coordinator, Bureau of Instruction and Innovation
10th ANNIVERSARY • After 10 years, Florida’s Standards needed to be revisited and refreshed • The only question was the extremity of the makeover.
2005/2006 Guiding Documents • College Board Review of FL Mathematics standards • International Center for Leadership in Education’s review of FL Mathematics standards • Fordham Foundation • Koret Task Force
Findings • Demand less of students than some other states • Minimal program provided for secondary students • Lack of emphasis on reasoning, problem solving, applications, and communication • Need to identify “big ideas” • Need to remove repetition across grades • Need to decrease the number of benchmarks • Covert in their representation of rigor/relevance • Fail to show a progression of rigor in grades 9-12 • Grade = “F” • Need greater specificity and clear guidelines that describe the knowledge students need to acquire • As students approach high school, neither the standards nor the testing system support a level of learning necessary for doing well in high school mathematics
2006 Florida’s Mathematics Standards Charge • Completely re-write the standards • Use guidance and the expertise of national and international experts to develop a set of mathematics standards that are rigorous and relevant to career and educational requirements beyond high school • Set high expectations for Florida K-12 students in mathematics • New mathematics standards will be the basis for rigorous and relevant classroom instruction, state assessment, and teacher professional development in mathematics
Based on NAEP test results, Florida’s 4th grade students outperform most of the nation.
2005 4th-grade NAEP MathematicsFlorida is At or Above the National Average in all Subgroups
NAEP Grade 8 mm
Discussions About A NAEP Grade 12 • This test would include more Algebra II, Trigonometry, and a greater emphasis on mathematical reasoning • What impact would/should this have on the revision of Florida’s mathematics standards?
International Math Performance TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, 2003)
Let’s Talk About Other Gaps The gap in performance between our grade levels.
2003 Students entering our State Universities: 7% in mathematics 4% in reading 4% in writing Students entering our Community Colleges: 54% in mathematics 42% in reading 29% in writing 2004 Students entering our State Universities: 6% in mathematics 3% in reading 3% in writing Students entering our Community Colleges: 47% in mathematics 36% in reading 26% in writing Gaps in College ReadinessFlorida High School Graduates Requiring Remediation
Goals of the High School Reform Task Force Goal 1: Increase the academic achievement levels of high school students. • Increase the percent of graduates prepared to enter postsecondary institutions without remediation. • Increase the level of rigor of high school mathematics and science instruction. • Increase the percent of teachers prepared to teach advanced courses at grades 6-12. Goal 2: Increase the percent of high school graduates. Goal 3: Increase the percent of graduates who begin their postsecondary path to college or career while in a Florida high school.
Secondary School Redesign Act Students promoted from the 8th grade have the necessary academic skills for success in high school and students graduating from high school have the necessary skills to success in the workplace and postsecondary.
Florida K-12 Student Achievement Mission of K-20 Education System …Allow students to increase their proficiency by allowing them the opportunity to expand their knowledge and skills through rigorous and relevant learning opportunities. Goal Lead the nation in improving student achievement Mission Lead the nation in student performance
AchieveAmerican Diploma Project Kay Fargione
American Diploma Project • How well prepared are our students for the world after high school? • What does it take to be prepared for postsecondary education and work? • What do we expect of our high school graduates? • What will it take to close the expectations gap?
A high school diploma is not the last educational stop required Jobs that require at least some postsecondary education will make up more than two-thirds of new jobs. Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, Educational Testing Service, 2003.
Change in the Distribution of Education in Jobs, 1973 v. 2001 -9% +16% -23% +16% Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, ETS, 2003.
College bound does not necessarily mean college ready Percentage of U.S. first-year students in two-year and four-year institutions requiring remediation • Nearly three in 10 first-year students are placed immediately into a remedial college course. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000, 2003.
Most U.S. college students who take remedial courses fail to earn degrees Percentage not earning degree by type of remedial coursework • Many college students who need remediation, especially in reading and math, do not earn either an associate’s or a bachelor’s degree. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, 2004.
Clearly, we’ve got a problem • Students are following all the rules; • Meeting all of the requirements for a HS diploma; and still-- • Falling through the cracks between high school and the expectations of postsecondary institutions.
College Ready = Career Ready • ADP research found a common core of knowledge & skills in math and English that are necessary for success in postsecondary education and in “good jobs”. • ACT Study Ready for College Ready for Work: Same or Different?: • whether planning to enter college or workforce training programs after graduation, high school students need to be educated to a comparable level of readiness in reading and mathematics.
Blue-collar jobs require high-level skills • Requirements for draftsmen: • Recommended high school courses include Geometry and Trigonometry. • Draftsmen may wish to seek additional study in mathematics and computer-aided design to keep up with technological progress within the industry. • Requirements for electricians: • Recommended high school courses include Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry and Physics. Sources: American Diploma Project, 2002; The Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) http://www.agc.org/page.ww?section=About+AGC&name=About+AGC.
Blue-collar jobs require high-level skills • Requirements for iron workers: • Recommended high school courses include Algebra, Geometry and Physics. • Requirements for sheet metal workers: • Four or five years of apprenticeship • Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry and technical reading • Requirements for tool and die makers • Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or postsecondary training • Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and statistics Sources: American Diploma Project, 2002; The Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) http://www.agc.org/page.ww?section=About+AGC&name=About+AGC.
ADP Post-secondary Institution Study:Key finding In math, graduates need knowledge and skills typically taught in Algebra I, Algebra II and Geometry, as well as some Data Analysis and Statistics.
44 states require students to take certain courses to graduate from high school
A strong high school curriculum* improves college completion and narrows gaps 13% 30% *Completing at least Algebra II plus other courses. Source: Adapted from Adelman, Clifford, U.S. Department of Education, Answers in the Toolbox, 1999.
Students can pass state math tests knowing content typically taught in 7th and 8th grade internationally Grade when most international students cover content required to pass state math tests FL MD MA NJ OH TX Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.
Curriculum Focal Points PK-8—A Quest for Coherence Released September 12, 2006 Dr. Jane Schielack
The Problem: Two Major Issues to Address • Long lists of mathematics learning expectations at the state level with little consistency across states • Emphasis on breadth resulting in lack of depth, i.e. “mile wide, inch deep” curricula in mathematics
The Rationale: How to Address the Issues • Identify key mathematical ideas across preK-8 that prepare students for future mathematics, particularly algebra • Identify the mathematics that should be the focus of instruction and student learning at each grade level, preK-8
NCTM Curriculum Principle A curriculum is more than a collection of activities. It must be: • coherent • focused on important mathematics • well articulated across the grades Principles and Standards for School Mathematics p. 14
NCTM Curriculum Principle “…a well-articulated curriculum gives teachers guidance regarding important ideas or major themes, which receive special attention at different points in time. It also gives guidance about the depth of study warranted at particular times and when closure is expected for particular skills or concepts.” Principles and Standards, p. 16