1 / 44

Distributed Systems

Distributed Systems. Introduction to the Group Communication Minqi Zhou mqzhou@sei.ecnu.edu.cn. Except as otherwise noted, the content of this presentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. Modes of communication. unicast 1 1 Point-to-point anycast

Télécharger la présentation

Distributed Systems

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Distributed Systems Introduction to the Group Communication Minqi Zhou mqzhou@sei.ecnu.edu.cn Except as otherwise noted, the content of this presentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License.

  2. Modes of communication • unicast • 11 • Point-to-point • anycast • 1nearest 1 of several identical nodes • Introduced with IPv6; used with BGP • netcast • 1 many, 1 at a time • multicast • 1many • group communication • broadcast • 1all

  3. Groups Groups are dynamic • Created and destroyed • Processes can join or leave • May belong to 0 or more groups Send message to one entity • Deliver to entire group Deal with collection of processes as one abstraction

  4. Design Issues • Closed vs. Open • Closed: only group members can sent messages • Peer vs. Hierarchical • Peer: each member communicates with group • Hierarchical: go through coordinator • Managing membership • Distributed vs. centralized • Leaving & joining must be synchronous • Fault tolerance?

  5. ImplementingGroup CommunicationMechanisms

  6. Hardware multicast Hardware support for multicast • Group members listen on network address send addr=a1 listen addr=a1 listen addr=a1 listen addr=a1

  7. discard id=m accept id=m accept id=m discard id=m accept id=m Hardware broadcast Hardware support for broadcast • Software filters multicast address • May be auxiliary address broadcast(id=m)

  8. send(a1) send(a3) send(a1) Software: netcast Multiple unicasts (netcast) • Sender knows group members listen local addr=a2 listen local addr=a3 listen local addr=a5

  9. send(a1) send(a3) send(c) send(a1) Software Multiple unicasts via group coordinator • coordinator knows group members coordinator listen local addr listen local addr listen local addr

  10. Reliability of multicasts

  11. Atomic multicast Atomicity Message sent to a group arrives at all group members • If it fails to arrive at any member, no member will process it. Problems Unreliable network • Each message should be acknowledged • Acknowledgements can be lost Message sender might die

  12. Achieving atomicity (2-phase commit variation) Retry through network failures & system downtime Sender and receivers maintain persistent log • Send message to all group members • Each receiver acknowledges message • Saves message and acknowledgement in log • Does not pass message to application • Sender waits for all acknowledgements • Retransmits message to non-responding members • Again and again… until response received • Sender sends “go” message to all members • Each recipient passes message to application • Sends reply to server

  13. Achieving atomicity Phase 1: • Make sure that everyone gets the message Phase 2: • Once everyone has confirmed receipt, let the application see it All members will eventually get the message

  14. Reliable multicast Best effort • Assume sender will remain alive • Retransmit undelivered messages • Send message • Wait for acknowledgement from each group member • Retransmit to non-responding members

  15. Unreliable multicast • Basic multicast • Hope it gets there

  16. Message ordering

  17. message a message b a b Good Ordering order received a, b Process 0 a, b

  18. message a message b a b Bad Ordering order received a, b Process 0 b, a

  19. order received message a a, b a b message b a, b Good Ordering Process 0 Process 1

  20. order received message a a, b a b message b b, a Bad Ordering Process 0 Process 1

  21. Sending versus Delivering • Multicast receiver algorithm decides when to deliver a message to the process. • A received message may be: • Delivered immediately(put on a delivery queue that the process reads) • Placed on a hold-back queue(because we need to wait for an earlier message) • Rejected/discarded(duplicate or earlier message that we no longer want)

  22. Sending, delivering, holding back sender receiver delivering Multicast sendingalgorithm delivery queue ? sending hold-back queue discard Multicast receiving algorithm

  23. Global time ordering • All messages arrive in exact order sent • Assumes two events never happen at the exact same time! • Difficult (impossible) to achieve

  24. Total ordering • Consistent ordering • All messages arrive at all group members in the same order • Implementation: • Attach unique totally sequenced message ID • Receiver delivers a message to the application only if it has received all messages with a smaller ID 1. If a process sends m before m’then any other process that delivers m’ will have delivered m. 2. If a process delivers m’ before m” then every other process will have delivered m’ before m”.

  25. Causal ordering • Partial ordering • Messages sequenced by Lamport or Vector timestamps • Implementation • Deliver messages in timestamp order per-source. If multicast(G,m) -> multicast(G, m’)then every process that delivers m’ will have delivered m

  26. Sync ordering • Messages can arrive in any order • Special message type • Synchronization primitive • Ensure all pending messages are delivered before any additional (post-sync) messages are accepted

  27. FIFO ordering • Messages can be delivered in different order to different members • Message m must be delivered before message m’ iff m was sent before m’ from the same host If a process issues a multicast of m followed by m’, then everyprocess that delivers m’ will have already delivered m.

  28. Unordered multicast • Messages can be delivered in different order to different members • Order per-source does not matter.

  29. Multicasting considerations atomic Reliability reliable unreliable sync total global causal unordered unordered FIFO Message Ordering

  30. IP Multicasting

  31. IP Broadcasting • • Limited broadcast: send to all connected networks • Host bits all 1 (, • Directed broadcast on subnet

  32. 28-bit multicast address 1110 IP Multicasting Class D network created for IP multicasting – Host group • Set of machines listening to a particular multicast address

  33. IP multicasting • Can span multiple physical networks • Dynamic membership • Machine can join or leave at any time • No restriction on number of hosts in a group • Machine does not need to be a member to send messages

  34. IP multicast addresses • Addresses chosen arbitrarily • Well-known addresses assigned by IANA • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority • RFC 1340 • Similar to ports – service-based allocation • FTP: port 21, SMTP: port 25, HTTP: port 80 all systems on this subnet all multicast routers on subnet music service SGI’s dogfight Audionews service

  35. LAN (Ethernet) multicasting LAN cards support multicast in one (or both) of two ways: • Packets filtered based on hash(mcast addr) • Some unwanted packets may pass through • Simplified circuitry • Exact match on small number of addresses • If host needs more, put LAN card in multicast promiscuous mode • Receive all hardware multicast packets Device driver must check to see if the packet was really needed

  36. LAN (Ethernet) multicasting example Intel 82546EB Dual Port Gigabit Ethernet Controller 10/100/1000 BaseT Ethernet Supports: • 16 exact MAC address matches • 4096-bit hash filter for multicast frames • promiscuous unicast & promiscuous multicast transfer modes

  37. IP multicast on a LAN • Sender specifies class D address in packet • Driver must translate 28-bit IP multicast group to multicast Ethernet address • IANA allocated range of Ethernet MAC addresses for multicast • Copy least significant 23 bits of IP address to MAC address • 01:00:5e:xx:xx:xx • Send out multicast Ethernet packet • Contains multicast IP packet Bottom 23 bitsof IP address

  38. IP multicast on a LAN Joining a multicast group Receiving process: • Notifies IP layer that it wants to receive datagrams addressed to a certain host group • Device driver must enable reception of Ethernet packets for that IP address • Then filter exact packets

  39. Beyond the physical network Packets pass through routers which bridge networks together Multicast-aware routerneeds to know: • are any hosts on a LAN that belong to a multicast group? IGMP: • Internet Group Management Protocol • Designed to answer this question • RFC 1112 (v1), 2236 (v2), 3376 (v3)

  40. IGMP v1 • Datagram-based protocol • Fixed-size messages: • 20 bytes header, 8 bytes data • 4-bit version • 4-bit operation (1=query by router, 2=response) • 16-bit checksum • 32-bit IP class D address

  41. Joining multicast group with IGMP • Machine sends IGMP report: • “I’m interested in this multicast address” • Each multicast router broadcasts IGMP queries at regular intervals • See if any machines are still interested • One query per network interface • When machine receives query • Send IGMP response packet for each group for which it is still interested in receiving packets

  42. Leaving a multicast group with IGMP • No response to an IGMP query • Machine has no more processes which are interested • Eventually router will stop forwarding packets to network when it gets no IGMP responses

  43. IGMP enhancements • IGMP v2 • Leave group messages added • Useful for high-bandwidth applications • IGMP v3 • Hosts can specify list of hosts from which they want to receive traffic. • Traffic from other (unwanted) hosts is blocked by the routers and hosts.

  44. The end.

More Related