CELLSThe Building Blocks of Life Systems Tissues Organic Molecules Organs Cells
Cells are made up of Organic Molecules The key element at the center of every organic molecule isCarbon
The Cell Theory: • All living things are composed of cells. • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all living things • All cells are produced from other cells.
Organellesare tiny structures inside cells that carry out specific functions. • Cell Wall – astrong andsturdy outer wall that surrounds the cell and gives it shape. Certain materials can pass through easily like oxygen and water. Animal cells do not have a cell wall. • Cell Membrane– a thinmembrane that surrounds the cell. Certain materials can pass through easily. All cells have these. • Organelles in the Cytoplasm – the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus.Cytoplasm is a gel-like fluid that fills the cell. • Nucleus – the “brain” of the cell. It controls all of the cell’s activities Contains DNA, controls cell growth and reproduction.
Mitochondria- a structure that produces energy for the cell. The “Powerhouse” of the cell. • Cellular Respiration glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water +ENERGY • Endoplasmic Reticulum– a “maze” of passageways that carry proteins from one part of the cell to another. • Ribosomes – small structures located on/around the ER, where proteins are produced. Function as protein “factories”. Pass proteins to the ER. • Golgi Bodies– package and deliver proteins. Receive proteins from the ER and release them to other parts of the cell, or to other cells.
Lysosomes – cell’s “clean-up crew”. Contain powerful chemicals that break down large food parts and old cell parts. Matter is released to the cell to be used again. • Vacuole – large, round, water-filled sac. Storage area of the cell. Stores mostly water. • Chloroplasts – large, green structures found in the cytoplasm of plant cells. Capture sunlight energy and use it to produce food. Give plants their green color. Photosynthesis water + carbon dioxide glucose + oxygen sunlight
Plant Cell 1. Nucleus 2. Ribosomes 3. Mitochondria 4. Chloroplasts 5. Cell Membrane 6. Cytoplasm 7. Cell Wall 8. Vacuole 9. Golgi Body 10. Endoplasmic Reticulum
Animal Cell 1. Ribosomes 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum 3. Nucleus 4. Lysosomes 5. Cell Membrane 6. Mitochondria 7. Cytoplasm 8. Golgi Bodies 9. Vacuole
Bacteria Cell • Generally smaller than plant/animal cells • Have cell walls and cell membranes. • Bacteria cells are called prokaryotes, meaning they do not have a nucleus. • Cells that have a nucleus are called eukaryotes. • Ribosomes are the only organelle in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells. DNA
Specialized Human Cells • Specialized Cells have specific functions. • Examples: bone cells, muscle cells, skin cells, eye cells, hair cells, nerve cells. • Structure determines Function! For example,a nerve cell has many long narrow branches that lead to the body of other nerve cells because… Nerve Cells Blood Cells Bone Cells Skin Cells
Cells as “building blocks” • A Tissue is a group of specialized cells that work together to accomplish a specific function. • Examples: cartilage, skin, bone, muscle, blood • An Organ is a structure made up of two or more tissues. Examples: Arm, heart, brain, liver, eye, toe