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Thermal Energy

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  1. Thermal Energy

  2. Thermal Energy How does thermal energy work?

  3. Important terms to know: • Temperature:

  4. Important terms to know: • Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in matter.

  5. Important terms to know: • Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in matter. • Low temperatures = low kinetic energy

  6. Important terms to know: • Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in matter. • Low temperatures = low kinetic energy • High temperatures = high kinetic energy

  7. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Thermometers: As the liquid in the thermometer heats up its volume increases (rises) and as it cools off its volume goes down (drops).

  8. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Scales: The three common scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and the Kelvin scales.

  9. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Scales: The three common scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and the Kelvin scales. • Fahrenheit: Used in the United States.

  10. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Scales: The three common scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and the Kelvin scales. • Fahrenheit: Used in the United States. • Celsius: Used nearly everywhere else.

  11. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Scales: The three common scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and the Kelvin scales. • Fahrenheit: Used in the United States. • Celsius: Used nearly everywhere else. • Kelvin: Commonly used in the physical sciences.

  12. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Conversions:

  13. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Conversions: • °K = °C + 273

  14. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Conversions: • °K = °C + 273 • °C = °K - 273

  15. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Conversions: • °K = °C + 273 • °C = °K - 273 • °C = 5/9(°F – 32)

  16. Important terms to know: • Temperature: continued • Conversions: • °K = °C + 273 • °C = °K - 273 • °C = 5/9(°F – 32) • °F = 9/5°C + 32

  17. Thermal Energy: • Thermal Energy depends on:

  18. Thermal Energy: • Thermal Energy depends on: • the number of particles an object has.

  19. Thermal Energy: • Thermal Energy depends on: • the number of particles an object has. • the temperature of an object.

  20. Thermal Energy: • Thermal Energy depends on: • the number of particles an object has. • the temperature of an object. • the arrangement of the object’s particles.

  21. Thermal Energy: • Thermal Energy depends on: • the number of particles an object has. • the temperature of an object. • the arrangement of the object’s particles. • Heat:

  22. Thermal Energy: • Thermal Energy depends on: • the number of particles an object has. • the temperature of an object. • the arrangement of the object’s particles. • Heat: • Thermal energy that moves from a warmer object to a cooler object.

  23. Thermal Energy: • Thermal Energy depends on: • the number of particles an object has. • the temperature of an object. • the arrangement of the object’s particles. • Heat: • Thermal energy that moves from a warmer object to a cooler object. • Thermal energy only becomes heat when it is transferred.

  24. Thermal Energy: • Thermal Energy depends on: • the number of particles an object has. • the temperature of an object. • the arrangement of the object’s particles. • Heat: • Thermal energy that moves from a warmer object to a cooler object. • Thermal energy only becomes heat when it is transferred. • It’s unit of measure is “Joules”.

  25. Thermal Energy: • Specific Heat:

  26. Thermal Energy: • Specific Heat: The amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a material by 1 °C.

  27. Thermal Energy: • Specific Heat: The amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a material by 1 °C. • Measured in joules per kilogram-Kelvin

  28. Thermal Energy: • Specific Heat: The amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a material by 1 °C. • Measured in joules per kilogram-Kelvin • J/(kg*C)

  29. Thermal Energy: • Common specific heats: • Aluminum: 903 J/(kg*C) • Copper 385 • Glass 837 • Ice 2,060 • Iron 450 • Sand 800 • Water 4,180

  30. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods.

  31. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods. • Conduction: The transfer of heat without the movement of matter.

  32. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods. • Conduction: The transfer of heat without the movement of matter. • A metal spoon in a pan of hot water (the spoon gets hot over time).

  33. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods. • Convection: The transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid.

  34. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods. • Convection: The transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid. • Water heating up in a pot on the stove (you can see the water moving).

  35. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods. • Convection: The transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid. • Water heating up in a pot on the stove (you can see the water moving). • Remember convection currents?!?!

  36. Convection current:

  37. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods. • Radiation: The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.

  38. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods. • Radiation: The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. • A fireplace warming a room.

  39. Heat Transfer: • Heat is transferred by three different methods. • Radiation: The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. • A fireplace warming a room. • Does not require matter to transfer thermal energy (the sun).

  40. Heat Transfer: • Heat flow:

  41. Heat Transfer: • Heat flow: • Heat transfer goes in one direction.

  42. Heat Transfer: • Heat flow: • Heat transfer goes in one direction. • Heat leaves the warmer object and goes to the cooler object.

  43. Heat Transfer: • Heat flow: • Heat transfer goes in one direction. • Heat leaves the warmer object and goes to the cooler object. • This will continue until the two objects have the same temperature.

  44. Heat Transfer: • Conductors:

  45. Heat Transfer: • Conductors: A material that transfers thermal energy well, partially because its atoms or molecules are close together.

  46. Heat Transfer: • Conductors: A material that transfers thermal energy well, partially because its atoms or molecules are close together. • Silver • Stainless steel • tile

  47. Heat Transfer: • Conductors: A material that transfers thermal energy well, partially because its atoms or molecules are close together. • Silver • Stainless steel • tile • Insulators: