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Latin American History

Latin American History

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Latin American History

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Latin American History From Early Empires to Conquest

  2. Early Civilizations • Olmec (1500-400 BCE) • Southern Mexico coastal • Mother of Central America • Mayan (100-900 CE) • Southern Mexico, Guatemala • Calendar, concept of 0 (zero) • Aztec (1300-1525 CE) • Central Mexico • Tenochtitlan, maize markets in huge cities • Inca (1300-1533 CE) • Andes—Ecuador to Chile • Terrace farming, roads, earthquake resistant buildings, Quecha language

  3. Olmec Empire—1500-900 BCE

  4. The Olmec

  5. Inca (1300-1533 CE)

  6. Machu Picchu

  7. Mayan Empire (100-900 CE)

  8. Mayan Ruins

  9. Aztecs (1300-1525 CE)

  10. Tenochtitlan—Aztec Capital

  11. Tenochtitlan—City Map

  12. Tenochtitlan—City Center

  13. Aztec Sacrifice

  14. And then… The Europeans arrive

  15. Questions to Consider: • On Columbus… • Why • What was he looking for? • 1494—Treaty of Tordesillas… • Why were all cut out but Spain and Portugal? • How did Pedro Cabral claim Brazil?

  16. The Methods of Conquistadores • Hernando Cotes • Deception • Alliances of Aztec’s enemies/rivals • Fear factor • Smallpox • Francisco Pissarro (Pizzarro???) • Deception and lies • Captured the Inca • Smallpox and the flu

  17. The Treaty of Tordesillas

  18. Weaknesses of the Empires • Both Aztecs and the Inca • Lack of immunity to common European diseases—smallpox, flu, measles, plague • Area too big for the ruler to handle • Conquered peoples treated cruelly • Aztecs • Superstitions about the horse and armor • Spanish weapons superior in battles • Inca • Atahualpa kidnapped; no second in command • Politics corrupt and easy to manuver

  19. “Latinized” Culture • Spanish or Portuguese imposed • Christian religion forced by Jesuit and Dominican missionaries • Class System enforces • Peninsulars—European-born whites • Creoles—whites born in the New World • Mestizos—white and Indian parents • Mulattos—white and African parents • Indigenous—native peoples • Forced Africans—slaves

  20. Slavery in Latin America • 95% of all African slaves brought to Latin America • Most to Caribbean • 1/3 to Brazil • 5% to English colonies (13 colonies) • Encomienda—large farm or ranch with forced indigenous laborers and the white owner living in the hacienda

  21. Columbian Exchange

  22. Bio-terrorism!!!