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Introduction to UML, the Unified Modeling Language

Introduction to UML, the Unified Modeling Language

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Introduction to UML, the Unified Modeling Language

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  1. Introduction to UML, the Unified Modeling Language Jean-Paul Rigault School of Computing (ESSI) University of Nice Sophia Antipolis Email: jpr@essi.fr

  2. Outline • Introduction: modeling and OO modeling • Application modeling with Use Cases • Class and object modeling • State modeling

  3. Introduction to UML Introduction: Modeling and Object-Oriented Modeling

  4. Introduction • What is modeling? • What is object-oriented modeling? • What is UML? • Technical activities in OO modeling

  5. Modeling is customary in engineering disciplines A model is a simplification of reality Handling the real world complexity The four aims of modelling Visualize the system Specify its structure and behavior Provide a template to help us build the system Document decisions made Examples of models Textual description Catalogue, Data book… Blueprint Scale model Formal descriptions Equations Finite state machines Set theoretic descriptions… etc. What is Modeling?

  6. The choice of a way of modelling influences how a problem is tackled how a solution is elaborated No single model is sufficient Different levels of abstraction (refinement) Different points of view Example: models of a house Different levels of refinement 3D view rough floor plan floor plan with room dimensions Different points of view architect ’s view mason ’s view plumber ’s view electrician ’s view What is Modeling? Principles of Modeling

  7. Domain analysis What is Object-Oriented Modeling?Technical activities in OO modeling Integration, validation, maintenance, management, etc. Business modeling Application modeling (Product definition Requirement Analysis) Object modeling Analysis and Design Code and unit testing

  8. Vehicle Abstraction Abstraction Boat Van Car Aircraft Basic Concepts Domain analysis Real World Modeling Plane Boat Car Simulation Exec Test Verif Valid Vehicle Model Code Realization What is Object-Oriented Modeling?

  9. OMG request OMG vote Many OOAD methods(> 50) Coad-Yourdon Booch (Rose) Good for design and construction UML 0.8 UML 0.9 UML 1.0 UML 1.1 UML 1.2 UML 1.3 UML 2.0 Shlaer-Mellor Fusion Rumbaugh (OMT) Good for analysis anddata-intensive systems etc. Jacobson (OOSE) Good for the captureof requirements Rational UMLconsortium OMG 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 … 2004 Overview of UMLA Brief History

  10. Overview of UMLWhat is UML and what is it for? UML is a language for • Visualizing • Specifying • Constructing • Documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system Syntax, Semantics (verification) Graphics Architecture and behavior Allow code generation Textual and graphic descriptions

  11. Overview of UMLWhat is UML and what is it for? • Software intensive systems… • Enterprise information systems; Banking and financial services • Telecommunications • Transportation; Defense; Aerospace • Medical electronics • Scientific applications • Distributed Web-based services • etc. • But also non-software systems • Workflow • Patient healthcare systems • Hardware design…

  12. State Diagrams Use Case Diagrams State Diagrams Use Case Diagrams Class Diagrams Use Case Diagrams State Diagrams State Diagrams Use Case Diagrams Object Diagrams Use Case Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Scenario Diagrams State Diagrams Scenario Diagrams State Diagrams Component Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams ModelElements Component Diagrams Scenario Diagrams Component Diagrams Scenario Diagrams Deployment Diagrams Statechart Diagrams Activity Diagrams Overview of UMLWhat is a UML Model? • A Use Case view • Functional requirements • Several object views • Different concerns (architecture, behaviour…) • Different levels of description (analysis, design, implementation…)

  13. Overview of UMLUML and Software Methodologies • The UML is methodology independent • However it is better suited to a development process that is • Use case driven • Architecture centric • Iterative and incremental

  14. Technical activities in OO modelingUML Views for Technical Activities Integration, validation, maintenance, management, etc. Business modeling USE CASES, ACTIVITY CLASSES Application modeling USE CASES, ACTIVITY Object modeling CLASSES SEQUENCES STATES Analysis and Design CLASSES SEQUENCES STATES Code and unit testing

  15. Introduction to UML Application Modeling (Product Definition/Requirement Analysis) with Use Cases

  16. Modeling Requirements in UML • Functional requirements • Modeled as Use Cases • Non-functional requirements • Some are specific to one use case • Some relate to technical issues addressed by implementation diagrams and models • Other in some supplementary documents, out of the UML scope…

  17. The Use Case ApproachWhat is a Use Case? • Set of sequences of actions that a system performs and that yields an observable result • A set of related services provided by the system, together with scenarios of use • Examples • Place an order, Subscribe to a service • Land an aircraft, Pilot a car…

  18. The Use Case ApproachWhat is an Actor? (1) • Actors are anything which interface with the system • People, other systems, hardware, software, networks… • They are roles, not necessarily full-fledged objects • Actors are usually named by nouns corresponding to roles • Actors participate or are interested in the result of Use Cases • Actors are not part of the system • They are just at the boundary; They won’t produce code!

  19. The Use Case ApproachWhat is an Actor? (2) • Several sorts of Actors • Humans, systems…; Primary and secondary • Primary actor • Triggers actions in the system • At least one per use case • Secondary actors • Support the activity, do not initiate it • Stakeholders • Interested in the actions, but not necessarily participating

  20. The Use Case ApproachA Simplified ATM (1) • The ATM is associated with only one bank • It gives access to all the accounts the customer owns in the bank • Several types of transactions can be chained in a single session • Withdrawal, deposit, transfer between the customer’s own accounts, consulting an account • The customer may obtain a printed receipt for each transaction

  21. The Use Case ApproachA Simplified ATM (2) • The card contains • an ID number • an expiration date • a secret code • The card must be verified by the ATM • The customer cannot make more than 3 attempts to enter the correct code, otherwise the card is swallowed • Interface • Keyboard and screen, with menus • The customer may cancel the current transaction at meaningful points

  22. The Use Case ApproachA Simplified ATM (3) • Minimal connection with the bank • When a session is opened, a connection makes it possible to known all the accounts the customer owns • Every night, the information about the current day transactions are transferred to the bank • Manual interventions: an employee • empties the machine and/or fills it with bank notes • supplies consumables and does any maintenance that may be needed

  23. The Use Case ApproachModeling Use Cases • Informal descriptions (non UML) • Describing scenarios • Just prose • More formal description (UML models) • Use Case diagrams • Activity diagrams • (Sequence and Collaboration diagrams)

  24. Identifying actors Who uses, installs, starts up, shuts down, maintains the system? Who provides (gets) information to (from) the system? What other systems use the system? Who has non-functional needs with respect to the system? ATM example Customer Bank (computer system) Technician What about the card? Informal UC DescriptionActors

  25. A full set of related system functionalities Identifying use cases Actors expectations Creating, consulting, updating or deleting system information? Notification of an actor state change or of an external event Start to end a complete use of the system ATM example Handle Session: Run a customer complete session from start (card insertion) to end (card retrievial or swallowing) Transfer Daily: Nightly retrieval of information by the Bank computer system Maintain: Run a maintenance session Informal UC DescriptionTop Level Use Cases

  26. Informal UC DescriptionUse Cases and Scenarios (1) • Use cases classify the ways of using the system • To each use case correspond many possible usage scenarios • A scenario is a sequence of interaction between the system and one or several actors • It expresses a particular path to traverse its use case • Thus scenarios • are instances of use cases • specify use cases

  27. Informal UC DescriptionUse Cases and Scenarios (2) • Each use case has generally • a primary scenario: typical usage • several secondary (more exceptional) scenarios • A scenario involves one or several actors • Usually one primary actor, and possibly supporting ones • It may have an initiator actor (often, the primary one) • A scenario may be of interest to stakeholders, which are not always participating actors • Example: regulation policy, board of directors, share owners…

  28. Informal UC DescriptionAlistair Cockburn’s Style (1) • Describe a full Use Case • with a primary (typical) scenario • and possible variants • Involve • a primary actor, a possible initiator actor (may be the primary) and possible supporting actors • the interest of some stakeholders • Several possible patterns • Brief (a simple sentence/paragraph) • Informal text, yet obeying simple writing rules… • Highly structured text (fully-dressed)

  29. Informal UC DescriptionA. Cockburn’s Style: Brief Handle Session Use Case The Customer inserts the card into the ATM. After verification and authentication, the customer may perform one or several transactions. When done, the customer gets the card back and leaves.

  30. Informal UC DescriptionA. Cockburn’s Style: Informal Use Case: Handle Session Primary actor (and initiator): Customer Supporting actor: Bank The customer inserts the card into the ATM. The ATM verifies the card and authenticates the customer. The ATM retrieves customer information from the Bank. The customer selects a transaction among withdrawal, deposit, transfer, and consult. After completion of the transaction, the Customer may decide to select an other transaction or to quit (in which case, he/she gets the card back). If the card is invalid or the customer fails to authenticate, the card is swallowed.

  31. Informal UC DescriptionA. Cockburn’s Style: Fully-dressed (1) • For each use case • Actors and stakeholders: as for informal • Pre- and post-conditions • Pre-condition:: must be true before starting (intiating) the UC • Post-condition: guaranteed to be true after UC completion • One primary scenario (composed of 2-8/10 steps) • Several variants associated with the (primary) scenario steps • Other information: Exceptions and errors (specific variants), Data needed, Constraints…

  32. Informal UC DescriptionA. Cockburn’s Style: Fully-dressed (2) • Primary scenario steps and variants are numbered • 1,2,3… in primary • 2a for first variant, expressed in informal style, of step 2 • 2b1,2b2,2b3… for variant b , expressed in fully-dressed, form, of step 2 • For each step • Express a functionality in a simple sentence • The subject of the sentence is one of the actors or the system • Use positive verbs in active form

  33. Use Case: Handle Session Primary actor (initiator): Customer Supporting actor: Bank Precondition: ATM is free Primary Scenario Customer inserts the card into ATM. ATM asserts card validity. Customer authenticates with ATM. ATM gets Customer information from Bank. Customer performs a transaction. Customer quits. ATM ejects card , Customer takes it Postcondition: ATM is free and all transactions have been recorded Informal UC DescriptionA. Cockburn’s Style: Fully-dressed (3)

  34. Use Case: Handle Session Primary actor (initiator): Customer Supporting actor: Bank Precondition: ATM is free Primary Scenario Customer inserts the card into ATM. ATM asserts card validity. Customer authenticates with ATM. ATM gets Customer information from Bank. Customer performs a transaction. Customer quits. ATM ejects card , Customer takes it Postcondition: ATM is free and all transactions have been recorded Variants 2a Card is invalid: ATM swallows it; this ends the session. 3a Customer fails to authenticate: ATM swallows card; this ends the session. 4a The connection with Bank is impossible or interrupted: ATM ejects the card; this ends the session. 5a Customer quits immediately. 6a Customer chooses to perform another transaction: go to step 5. 7a Customer does not get card back quickly enough: ATM beeps * Customer may cancel session: ATM ejects the card. Informal UC DescriptionA. Cockburn’s Style: Fully-dressed (4)

  35. Give a meaningful name to each use case Usually an active verbal form The name should correspond to the objective of the expected (business) service Do not model outside the system! Bad Customer use cases choosing a particular ATM machine deciding how much money to withdraw Do not model at too low level! Bad Customer top level use cases insert the card enter secret code, get ticket select transaction type, select accounts, select amount… Even worse push the Enter button on the keyboard… Informal UC DescriptionBest Practices

  36. association Customer Bank Technician Formal UC DescriptionTop Level UC Diagram Handle Session supporting Transfer Daily Maintain system limit initiator

  37. Formal UC DescriptionUC Decomposition (1) • The realization of each top level use case requires sub-functionalities • Lower level Use Cases, UC fragments… • … which are not real (“start-to-end”) use cases • Functional-like decomposition, not really object-oriented! • Hierarchical decomposition: relationships between use cases • Inclusion • Generalization • (Extension)

  38. Including « include » Included Formal UC DescriptionUC Decomposition: Inclusion HandleSession • « include » stereotype • The included use case is a mandatory part of the including one • The including UC depends on the included one « include » « include » « include » VerifyCard « include » Handle Transaction AuthenticateCustomer Get CustomerInformation

  39. HandleSession « include » « include » « include » VerifyCard « include » Handle Transaction AuthenticateCustomer Extended « extend » Get CustomerInformation « extend » Deliver Receipt Extending Formal UC DescriptionUC Decomposition: Extension (1) • « extend » stereotype • The extending use case augments the functionality of the extended one, • The extending UC depends on the extended one

  40. Formal UC DescriptionUC Decomposition: Extension (2) • The interpretation of « extend » varies • The UML standard does not specify the nature of the condition at the “extension point” • Corporate policies may apply! • Note the direction of the dependency arrow • The lower level (extending) use case depends on the higher one • The higher level one may not depend on the extension • This remark helps to distinguish « extend » from « include »

  41. Generalized Specialized Formal UC DescriptionUC Decomposition: Generalization Handle Transaction • The specialized and generalized use cases are in a “sort of” relationship Handle Withdrawal Handle Deposit Handle Consult Handle Transfer

  42. Passenger Frequent Flyer Regular Formal UC DescriptionRemark on Actors: Generalization • It may be convenient to apply generalization to actors • A frequent flyer and a regular passenger are both passengers • Each of them may play the (general) role of Passenger in a use case • However, e.g., a frequent flyer may interact with specific use cases

  43. Use Case: Handle Session Primary actor (initiator): Customer Supporting actor: Bank Precondition: ATM is free Primary Scenario Customer inserts the card into ATM. ATM asserts card validity. Customer authenticates with ATM. ATM gets Customer information from Bank. Customer performs a transaction. Customer quits. ATM ejects card , Customer takes it Postcondition: ATM is free and all transactions have been recorded HandleSession « include » « include » « include » VerifyCard « include » Handle Transaction AuthenticateCustomer Get CustomerInformation Formal UC DescriptionUC Decomposition: Cockburn's Style

  44. Formal UC DescriptionUC Decomposition: Best Practices • Avoid « extend » • unless specific corporate policy! • Usually actors are not repeated on decomposed diagrams • unless this can bring some added information… • Interaction of an actor with a specific sub-UC • Interaction of a specialized actor with a sub-UC • or specific corporate policy! • Do not over-decompose • Sub-UC should have “functional substance” (that is, in general, several significant sub-scenarios)

  45. Formal UC DescriptionUC Scenarios (1) • Scenarios are instances of use cases • Natural language for expressing scenarios • has a strong power of expression • lacks precision • makes it difficult to express information like timing and concurrency • Need for formal (UML) expression of scenarios and use cases

  46. Formal UC DescriptionUC Scenarios (2) • Sequence diagrams • Only one scenario per diagram • Accent on the time flow • At the Use Case level, express scenarios involving the system and some of its actors • May be used also as a mean to model business activity (inter-actor scenarios) • Activity diagrams • Several scenarios (even a full use case) at once • Sort of (concurrent) flow charts…

  47. : Bank : ATM : Customer insert card get customer info prompt for selection select transaction produce result quit time eject card Formal UC DescriptionUC Scenarios: SequenceDiagrams

  48. condition action state [date OK] Verify Date Verify Code transition Formal UC DescriptionUC Scenarios: Activity Diagrams (1) • Express a flow of control • Composed of Action States (or Activities) connected by Transitions • Transitions may be conditional • A Transition is fired if its origin Activity has completed its action and if its (optional) condition is true

  49. Handle Verify Card Transaction [ not Quit ] [ not Card_OK ] [ Card_OK ] [ Quit ] Authenticate Swallow Customer Eject [ not Passed ] [ Passed ] Get Customer Info Formal UC DescriptionUC Scenarios: Activity Diagrams (2) Handle Session UC

  50. Process Order UC Receive Order Establish Prepare Invoice Delivery Deliver Formal UC DescriptionUC Scenarios: Activity Diagrams (3) • Fork and join bars • Express concurrency • Fork spawns several concurrent activities • Join waits for all incoming activities to complete • Logical concurrency • Avoid enforcing non relevant sequencing • The designer will have the freedom to choose how to implement (even in non-concurrent ways)