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Spirulina. Spirulina. Blue-green algae 62% amino acid content natural source of vitamin B12 whole spectrum of natural mixed carotene and xanthophyll phytopigments gamma-linolenic fatty acid cell wall made of complex sugars and protein
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Spirulina • Blue-green algae • 62% amino acid content • natural source of vitamin B12 • whole spectrum of natural mixed carotene and xanthophyll phytopigments • gamma-linolenic fatty acid • cell wall made of complex sugars and protein • contains phycobilisomes as light-harvesting protein–pigment complexes : phycocyanin and allophycocyanin
anticancer antibacterial antiparasitic antiviral properties medical conditions allergies ulcers anemia heavy-metal poisoning radiation poisoning Spirulina Al-Batshan et al., 2001 Dasgupta et al., 2001 Zhang et al., 2001 Rodriguez-Hernandez et al., 2001 Pinero Estrada et al., 2001 Hirahashi et al., 2002 Hayashi et al., 1993 Ayehunie et al., 1998
Spirulina : antioxidant In vitro studies : • Polysaccharides of Spirulina enhance cell nucleus enzyme activity and DNA repair synthesis. • Spirulina is a powerful tonic for the immune system. Q.S. Pang, B.J. Guo, J.H. Ruan, Enhancement of endonuclease activity and repair DNA synthesis by polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis, I Chuan Hsuch Pao 15 (1998) 374–381. M.A. Qureshi, M.T. Kidd, R.A. Ali, Spirulina platensis extract enhances chicken macrophage functions after in vitro exposure, J. Nutritional Immunol. 3 (1995) 35–45. M.A. Qureshi, J.D. Garlich, M.T. Kidd, Dietary Spirulinaplatensis enhances humoral and cell-mediated immune functions in chickens, Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 18 (1996) 465–476. M.A. Qureshi, R.A. Ali, Spirulina platensis exposure enhances macrophage phagocytic function in cats, Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 18 (1996) 457–463.
Spirulina : antiviral activity Clinical studies : No fair trial of the effectiveness of whole algal supplementation. In vitro evidence : Seaweeds and Spirulina extracts in vitro inhibit a variety of enveloped viruses • HSV-1 and 2 • cytomegalovirus • measles virus • mumps virus • influenza A virus • HIV Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Kojima I. A natural sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan, isolated from Spirulina platensis: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities. AIDS Res Hum Retrov 1996;12(15):1463–71. Witvrouw M, De Clercq E. Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from sea algae as potential antiviral drugs. Gen Pharmacol 1997;29(4):497–511. Schaeffer DJ, Krylov VS. Anti-HIV activity of extracts and compounds from algae and cyanobacteria. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 2000;45(3):208–27, 10.1006/cesa.1999.1862.
Spirulina From a nutritional point of view, although inferior to the best protein of animal origin, Spirulina protein ranks as one of the best protein sources of plant origin.
Spirulina : toxicity A case report of suspected spirulina-induced hepatoxicity in Japan. AJG – Vol. 97, No. 12, 2002