valuasi ekonomi sumberdaya lahan n.
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  3. LAHAN = SUMBERDAYA EKONOMI Land is the economic resource encompassing natural resources found within a nation economy. This resource includes timber, land, fisheries, farms and other similar natural resources. Land is usually a limited resource for many economies. Although some natural resources, such as timber, food and animals, are renewable, the physical land is usually a fixed resource. Nations must carefully use their land resource by creating a mix of natural and industrial uses. Using land for industrial purposes allows nations to improve the production processes for turning natural resources into consumer goods. Gross Margin: The simplest economic measure is the gross margin, which is the cash flow out less the cash flow in, on a per unit area (normalized or standardized) or aggregate (per-field or per-farm) basis, in one accounting period (usually a year). The gross margin can be expressed in terms of the return to labor or the return to land. Return to labor: the farm family’s labor is not included as an expense, and the gross margin must be sufficient to allow the farm family an adequate income. This makes most sense if the gross margin is non-normalized, i.e., the actual amount received for the whole farm. Return to land: the farm family’s labor is included in the expenses, as if the labor had been contracted. If the ‘wage’ is at a reasonable level, the gross margin only has to be positive for the land use to be feasible. This makes most sense if the gross margin is normalized, i.e., the amount received per unit land area. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  4. LAHAN ….. Land, In economics, the resource that encompasses the natural resources used in production. In classical economics, the three factors of production are land, labour, and capital. Land was considered to be the “original and inexhaustible gift of nature.” In modern economics, it is broadly defined to include all that nature provides, including minerals, forest products, and water and land resources. While many of these are renewable resources, no one considers them “inexhaustible.” The payment to land is called rent. Like land, its definition has been broadened over time to include payment to any productive resource with a relatively fixed supply. Automated Land Evaluation System ‘ALES’. How ALES links land characteristics with economic values Starting from the physical inventory of the characteristics of a land area, how do we arrive at an economic value of a land use if implemented on that land area? By means of severity levels of Land Qualities, which can either limit yield (and thus reduce income) or increase costs. Land Qualities, and their diagnostic Land Characteristics, can be divided into two type for this analysis: Location-independent (in-situ) and Location dependent. E.g. (1) soil and climate qualities and characteristics, (2) distance, Adjacency. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  5. LAND QUALITY INDICATOR (LQI) Some generic indicators of land units that must be monitored, especially for: Condition of land resources, both positive and negative; Areas arising from different land uses; Rates of adaptation and adoption of recommended/suggested practices; Farm management practices; Yields and other outputs resulting from project interventions or other development; Rural development issues such as land tenure, population density; Water resources; Fisheries and aquaculture; Forest management; Land-soil nutrients. Lahanpertanianproduktif –mixed cropping DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  6. The holistic concept of Land (FAO ,1976; FAO, 1995) : "Land is a delineable area of the earth's terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near-surface climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, buildings, etc.).“ The functions of Land: Production function Biotic environmental function Climate-regulative function Hydrologic function Storage function Waste and pollution control function Living space function Archive or heritage function Connective space function. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  7. Land attributes, characteristics, properties and qualities (or limitations/ conditions): ATTRIBUTE, or variable, is a neutral, over-arching term for a single or compound aspect of the land; CHARACTERISTIC is an attribute which is easily noticed and which serves as a distinguishing element for different types of land; it may or may not have a practical meaning (e.g., soil colour or texture, or height of forest cover are characteristics without giving direct information on land quality); PROPERTY is an attribute that already gives a degree of information on the value of the land type; LAND QUALITY (or limitation) is a complex attribute of land which acts in a manner distinct from the actions of other land qualities in its influence on the suitability of land for a specified kind of use. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  8. KERANGKA-KERJA EVALUASI LAHAN DARI FAO 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO PRODUCTIVITY FROM CROPS OR OTHER PLANT GROWTH Crop yields (a resultant of many qualities listed below). Moisture availability. Nutrient availability. Oxygen availability in the root zone. Adequacy of foothold for roots. Conditions for germination. Workability of the land (ease of cultivation). Salinity or sodicity. Soil toxicity. Resistance to soil erosion. Pests and diseases related to the land. Flooding hazard (including frequency, periods of inundation). Temperature regime. Radiation energy and photoperiod. Climatic hazards affecting plant growth (including wind, hail, frost). Air humidity as affecting plant growth. Drying periods for ripening of crops. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  9. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO DOMESTIC ANIMAL PRODUCTIVITY Productivity of grazing land. Climatic hardships affecting animals. Endemic pests and diseases. Nutritive value of grazing land. Toxicity of grazing land. Resistance to degradation of vegetation. Resistance to soil erosion under grazing conditions. Availability of drinking water. Lahanpertanianpadasaat “bera” mernjadisumberrumputpakanternak DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  10. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO FOREST PRODUCTIVITY The qualities listed may refer to natural forests, forestry plantations, or both. Mean annual increments of timber species Types and quantities of indigenous timber species. Site factors affecting establishment of young trees. Pests and diseases. Fire hazard. Kawasanhutantanamanjati DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  11. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO MANAGEMENT AND INPUTS The qualities listed may refer to arable use, animal production or forestry. Terrain factors affecting mechanization (trafficability). Terrain factors affecting construction and maintenance of access-roads (accessibility). Size of potential management units (e.g. forest blocks, farms, fields). Location in relation to markets and to supplies of inputs. FAO. 1976. A framework for land evaluation. Soils Bulletin 32, FAO, Rome. 72 p. Also, Publication 22, (R. Brinkman and A. Young (eds.), ILRI, Wageningen, The Netherlands. FAO. 1995. Planning for sustainable use of land resources: towards a new approach, W.G. Sombroek and D. Sims. Land and Water Bulletin 2, FAO, Rome. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  12. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit ATMOSPHERIC QUALITIES Atmospheric moisture supply: rainfall, length of growing season, evaporation, dew formation. Atmospheric energy for photosynthesis: temperature, daylength, sunshine conditions. Atmospheric conditions for crop ripening, harvesting and land preparation: occurrence of dry spells. LAND COVER QUALITIES Value of the standing vegetation as "crop", such as timber. Value of the standing vegetation as germ plasm: biodiversity value. Value of the standing vegetation as protection against degradation of soils and catchment. Value of the standing vegetation as regulator of local and regional climatic conditions. Regeneration capacity of the vegetation after complete removal. Value of the standing vegetation as shelter for crops and cattle against adverse atmospheric influences. Hindrance of vegetation at introduction of crops and pastures: the land "development" costs. Incidence of above-ground pests and vectors of diseases: health risks of humans and animals. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  13. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit LAND SURFACE AND TERRAIN QUALITIES Surface receptivity as seedbed: the tilth condition. Surface treatability: the bearing capacity for cattle, machinery, etc. Surface limitations for the use of implements (stoniness, stickiness, etc.): the arability. Spatial regularity of soil and terrain pattern, determining size and shape of fields with a capacity for uniform management. Surface liability to deformation: the occurrence or hazard of wind and water erosion. Accessibility of the land: the degree of remoteness from means of transport. The presence of open freshwater bodies for use by humans, animals or fisheries. Surface water storage capacity of the terrain: the presence or potential of ponds, on-farm reservoirs, bunds, etc. Surface propensity to yield run-off water, for local water harvesting or downstream water supply. Accumulation position of the land: degree of fertility renewal or crop damaging by overflow or overblow. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  14. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit SOIL QUALITIES Physical soil fertility: the net moisture storage capacity in the rootable zone. Physical soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of waterlogging in the rootable zone (i.e. the absence of oxygen). Chemical soil fertility: the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical soil toxicity: salinity or salinization hazard; excess of exchangeable sodium. Biological soil fertility: the N-fixation capacity of the soil biomass; and its capacity for soil organic matter turnover. Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil-borne pests and diseases. Substratum (and soil profile) as source of construction materials. Substratum (and soil profile) as source of minerals. Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil-borne pests and diseases. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  15. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit SUBSTRATUM OR UNDERGROUND QUALITIES Groundwater level and quality in relation to (irrigated) land use. Substratum potential for water storage (local use) and conductance (downstream use). Presence of unconfined freshwater aquifers. Substratum (and soil profile) suitability for foundation works (buildings, roads, canals, etc.) Deskripsiprofiltanah DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  16. LAND EVALUATION…. EVALUASI LAHAN Land evaluation is the process of assessment of land performance when used for specific purposes, involving the execution and interpretation of surveys and studies of land forms, soils, vegetation, climate and other aspects of land in order to identify and make a comparison of promising kinds of land use in terms applicable to the objectives of the evaluation. LUT A land utilization type (FAO, 1976) is a kind of land use described or defined in a higher degree of detail than that of a major kind of land use (such as rainfed agriculture or forestry), as an abstraction of actual land-use systems (which may be single, compound or multiple). DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  17. KETAHANAN LAHAN Some concepts of resilience of land and its productivity, comparing the situation in someindustrialized countries (A) with that of most developing countries (B). (Sombroek, 1993) KetahanansuatuLahan : The capacity of the land to recover quickly to former levels of productivity - or to resume the trend to increased productivity - after an adverse influence such as drought, floods, or human abandonment or mismanagement. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  18. MAJOR ISSUES OF LAND MANAGEMENT…. Decline in quality of soils as rooting environments; Erosion and loss of topsoil by wind and water; Loss of vegetation cover, including woody perennials; Acidification, soil fertility decline and plant nutrient depletion; Salinity and salinization, particularly in irrigated systems. Pengelolaanlahansawah : Palawijamusimkemarau DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  19. INDICATOR : Land condition change (Change in land qualities). The type OF INDICATORS: Physical soil condition; Diversity or density of vegetation cover; Thickness of topsoil (by erosion or, conversely, by good management); Salinity or sodicity (alkaline conditions); Terracing; Establishment of contour vegetation strips. Unit in which the indicator is measured: areal extent and magnitude of change of the indicator types , with improvement and deterioration reported separately. Mulsasisa-panentanamansebelumnyauntukmengendalikanevaporasi DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  20. LAND QUALITY INDICATOR (LQI) I. Above the soil surface, as related with yields: Cover close to the ground: its density, distribution, duration, timing. Stress in plants: growth rates; timing and frequency of wilting; visible nutrient deficiencies or imbalances. II. On the soil surface, as affecting particularly soil moisture and runoff+erosion: Porosity of at least topsoil layers, in millimetric bands: proportions of incident rainfall becoming infiltrated; III. Below the soil surface: Organic matter content and biological activity, as affecting multiple features: Soil architecture: . structural stability; . gas exchange . water movement and retention/release; Cation exchange capacity: . nutrient capture and retention; . pH buffering; . nutrient availability; . source of small amounts of recycled nutrients. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  21. LIMA MACAM LQI UNTUK PERTANIAN DAN KEHUTANAN NUTRIENT BALANCE: describes nutrient stocks and flows as related to different land management systems used by farmers in specific AEZs and specific countries. YIELD TRENDS AND YIELD GAPS: describes current yields, yield trends and actual:potential farm-level yields for the major food crops in different countries. LAND USE INTENSITY: describes the impacts of agricultural intensification on land quality. Intensification may involve increased cropping, more value-added production, and increased amounts and frequency of inputs; emphasis is on the management practices adopted by farmers in the transition to intensification. LAND USE DIVERSITY (agrodiversity): describes the degree of diversification of production systems over the landscape, including livestock and agroforestry systems; it reflects the degree of flexibility (and resilience) of regional farming systems, and their capacity to absorb shocks and respond to opportunities. LAND COVER: describes the extent, duration and timing of vegetative cover on the land during major erosive periods of the year. It is a surrogate for erosion and, along with land use intensity and diversity, it will increase understanding on the issues of desertification. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  22. PRODUKTIVITAS TANAH SOIL Fertility is the inherent capacity of a soil to supply nutrients in adequate amounts and suitable proportions, whereas soil productivity is a wider term referring to the ability of a soil to yield crops (Brady, 1974). The chief factors in soil productivity are soil organic matter (including microbial biomass), soil texture, structure, depth, nutrient content, water-storage capacity, reaction and absence of toxic elements. The soil productivity depends on physical, hydric, chemical and biologic characteristics and their interaction. Brady, N.C. 1974. The Nature and properties of soils. 8th Edition. Macmillan, New York. SAWAH IRIGASI TEKNIS DiunduhdariSumber: 3/11/2012 .

  23. PRODUKTIVITAS LAHAN Land productivity measures the wealth generated on a piece of land. High land productivity translates into : Lower resource wastage, Improved production processes, Shorter turn-around time and, Greater cost-savings. Mulsaplastik – ciriusahataniintensif DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  24. KUALITAS & SIFAT-CIRI, KARAKTERISTIK TANAH Soil quality is generally defined in terms of the capacity of a soil to perform specific functions in relation to human needs or purposes, including maintaining environmental quality and sustaining plant and animal production (Lal, 1998a). Soil quality, in turn, derives from a variety of particular physical, chemical, and biological properties that support these functions, including topsoil depth, texture, bulk density, and water-holding capacity; organic matter, pH level, and extractable nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and microbial biomass (Mausbach and Seybold, 1998). Some of these properties (e.g., pH, N, P, and K) are characterized by optimum levels; departures from these optima (in either direction) are associated with reduced soil quality. Other properties (e.g., topsoil depth and microbial biomass) contribute positively to soil quality at all levels, while some (e.g., bulk density) are inversely related to soil quality. In addition to soil properties, other characteristics also play a critical role in determining land quality, including aspects of terrain (such as slope) and climate (such as temperature and precipitation, and thus the length of growing period). Lal, R. 1998a. “Soil Erosion Impact on Agronomic Productivity and Environment Quality.” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 17(4): 319-464. Mausbach, M. J., and C. A. Seybold . 1998. “Assessment of Soil Quality.” In Soil Quality and Agricultural Sustainability, edited by Rattan Lal. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press. DiunduhdariSumber: 3/11/2012 .

  25. STORIE INDEX The Storie index is a method of soil rating based on soil characteristics that govern the land's potential utilization and productivity capacity. It is independent of other physical or economic factors that might determine the desirability of growing certain plants in a given location. The evaluation is easy to be realized, being this an advantage of this method. A variety of categories are comprised in few categories. Four or five parameters are evaluated: A: Soil depth and texture; B: Soil permeability; C: Soil chemical characteristics; D: Drainage, Surface runoff; E: Climate (only if it is not homogeneous, if so than it should not be included in the formula); The index is calculated from the multiplication of these parameters, that is: Sindex = A x B x C x D x E The disadvantage of this method is that if we have a value of zero in any category, than the result will be zero and won't be suitable for using. DiunduhdariSumber: 3/11/2012 .

  26. STORIE INDEX RATING SYSTEM The Storie Index Rating system ranks soil characteristics according to their suitability for agriculture from Grade 1 soils (80 to 100 rating), which have few or no limitations for agricultural production to Grade 6 soils (less than 10), which are not suitable for agriculture. Under this system, soils deemed less than prime can function as prime soils when limitations such as poor drainage, slopes, or soil nutrient deficiencies are partially or entirely removed. The six grades, ranges in index rating, and definition of the grades, as defined by the NRCS, are provided below in Table Storie Index Rating System. Tanah yang mempunyai rating tinggicocokuntuk multiple cropping DiunduhdariSumber: 5/11/2012.

  27. Storie Index Rating System … DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 5/11/2012.

  28. Rating soils for agricultural, forest and grazing use. STORIE, R. E. Journal Transactions 4th Int. Cong. Soil Sci. 1950 Vol. 1 pp. 336-339 … . The Storie Index, a general soil-rating system of particular use in evaluating soils from an agricultural standpoint for tax assessment, land appraisal and general land-use planning purposes, is obtained by the multiplication of the per cent ratings given to FACTORS: A, the soil-profile depth and permeability; B, texture; C, slope and X, factors modifiable by management, namely drainage, salinity or alkalinity, nutrient level, acidity, erosion and micro-relief. The crop-productivity rating of a soil type is based on its yield as compared with that of the soil types giving the highest yield under stated management practices and climatic conditions, and is expressed in ratios from 10 to 1 (that is 100% to 10% of highest yields). A given soil type may have one rating when undrained, another when drained and a third when d "a ned and fertilized and so on. Timber soil ratings are similarly handled but where production is unknown, they are worked out by multiplying the ratings for factors A, depth and texture; B, permeability; C, chemical properties such as salinity; D, drainage and runoff and E, climate, including rainfall, temperature, aspect. DiunduhdariSumber:;jsessionid=C0E71A3FA5EEDD62EF48270B1D7C59AA .................... 5/11/2012.


  30. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X Faktor A : Rating karakterfisikprofiltanah Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  31. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X Faktor A : Rating karakterfisikprofiltanah Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  32. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X Faktor A : Rating karakterfisikprofiltanah Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  33. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  34. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR B. RATING BERDASARKAN TEKSTUR TANAH LAPISAN ATAS Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  35. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR B. RATING BERDASARKAN TEKSTUR TANAH LAPISAN ATAS Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  36. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR C. RATING BERDASARKAN KEMIRINGAN Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  37. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR X. RATING BERDASARKAN FAKTOR LAINNYA, SELAIN FAKTOR A, B, DAN C. Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  38. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR X. RATING BERDASARKAN FAKTOR LAINNYA, SELAIN FAKTOR A, B, DAN C. Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  39. SOIL RATING CHART .Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X SOIL GRADING Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univoc California. 1978

  40. KUALITAS & KARAKTERISTIK LAHAN "Karakterisiklahan" merupakanatributlahan yang dapatdiukurataudiestimasi. Misalnya: kemiringan, curahhujan, teksturtanah, kapasitas air tersedia, biomasavegetasi, dll. "Kualitaslahan" adalahkompleksatributlahan yang mempunyaiperananspesifikdalammenentukantingkatkesesuaianlahanuntuksuatupenggunaantertentu. Misalnya: ketersediaan air, resistensierosi, bahayabanjir, danaksesibilitas. "Kriteriadiagnostik" adalahsuatupeubah yang mempunyaipengaruhtertentuterhadaphasil (atau input yang diperlukan ) padapenggunaantertentu, danpeubahinijugaberfungsisebagaidasaruntukmenilaikesesuaiansuatubidanglahanbagipenggunaantertentu. “Kriteriadiagnostik” inidapatberupakualitaslahan, karakteristiklahan, ataubeberapakarakteristiklahan. Diunduhdarisumber:…… 5/11/2012

  41. KUALITAS LAHAN Hubunganantarakualitasdankarakteristiklahan yang dipakaipadametodeevaluasilahan (Djaenudinet al. 2003).. Diunduhdarisumber:…… 5/11/2012

  42. LAND USE Land comprises the physical environment, including climate, relief, soils, hydrology and vegetation, to the extent that these influence potential for land use. It includes the results of past and present human activity, e.g. reclamation from the sea, vegetation clearance, and also adverse results, e.g. soil salinization. Purely economic and social characteristics, however, are not included in the concept of land; these form part of the economic and social context. (sumber: Land use is the human use of land. Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as fields, pastures, and settlements. “LAND USE” has also been defined as "the arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it" (FAO, 1997; FAO/UNEP, 1999).. Diunduhdarisumber:…… 5/11/2012

  43. LAND UTILIZATION A land utilization type consists of a set of technical specifications in a given physical, economic and social setting. This may be the current environment or a future Betting modified by major land improvement e, e.g. an irrigation and drainage scheme. Attributes of land utilization types include data or assumptions on: Produce, including goods (e.g. crops, livestock timber), cervices (e.g. recreational facilities) or other benefits (e.g. wildlife conservation) Market orientation, including whether towards subsistence or commercial production Capital intensity Labour intensity Power sources (e.g. man's labour, draught animals machinery using fuels) Technical knowledge and attitudes of land users Technology employed (e.g. implements and machinery, fertilizers, livestock breeds, farm transport, methods of timber felling) Infrastructure requirements (e.g. sawmills, tat factories, agricultural advisory services) Size and configuration of land holdings, including whether consolidated or fragmented Land tenure, the legal or customary manner in which rights to land are held, by individuals or groups Income levels, expressed per capita, per unit of production (e.g. farm) or per unit area. Diunduhdarisumber: …… 5/11/2012

  44. Neoclassical Production Theory The neoclassical production function for a single output and two variable inputs can be written: y = f(x1,x2) where y is the quantity of output and xi is the quantity of the ith variable input. The properties of this production function are specified by assumptions: Xi ≥ 0 and finite (non-negative, real inputs); f(X1,X2) is finite, nonnegative, real valued, and single valued for all possible combinations of X1 and X2; f(X1,X2) is everywhere continuous and everywhere twice continuously differentiable; f(X1,X2) is subject to the "law" of diminishing returns. Diunduhdarisumber: …… 5/11/2012

  45. INPUT / FAKTOR PRODUKSI Of the three factors of production in classical economics, land, labor, and capital, land may be the most difficult to define. Does it refer to just the land itself? Or is land a generic term referring to all natural resources? Air, sunshine, and water, necessary to make land productive, are all part of the surrounding ecosystems. While ownership of land itself can easily be demarcated, ownership of mobile, associated resources is trickier. DiunduhdariSumber: 2/10/2012.

  46. PROSES PRODUKSI TANAMAN Many processes affect crop performance : the conservative efficiency of the use of radiation, water and nutrient on crop growth, those contributing to the soil water balance and those affecting soil fertility. Crop growth has been modelled successfully as a function of environmental factors using the concept of these conservative efficiencies. Crop production will be described for these levels in terms of potential and water- or nutrient limited production . The most suitable cereal crop (depending on the agro-ecological conditions wheat, rice, maize, millet or sorghum) is taken as a proxy for a wide range of crops that could be grown, with yields expressed in 'grain equivalents'. In practice actual production levels may differ from these calculated levels due to deviant agricultural management. Actual yield is a function of biophysical as well as the socio-economic conditions Levels of production and required data for its assessment. (Modified from Rabbinge, 1993). Rabbinge, R., 1993. The ecological background in food production . In: Crop protection and sustainable agriculture. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester (Ciba Foundation Symposium 177), pp. 2-29. DiunduhdariSumber: 5/11/2012 .

  47. INPUT-OUTPUT PROCESS RELATIONSHIPS Stylized Production Functions or Input-Output Relationships for a Single Variable Input Figure illustrates some differently shaped production functions for the case of a single-variable input production process. Each graph shows the physical input-output relationship or total physical product curve as the level of the single variable input is increased with all other input factors held constant. In graphs A and B, the law of diminishing returns (sometimes called the law of variable proportions) prevails - beyond some point, as the level of the variable input increases with no change in the level of other input factors, increases in output occur at a diminishing rate (the marginal product is decreasing) and eventually, beyond the point of maximum output, output declines in absolute terms (the marginal product becomes negative). DiunduhdariSumber: 5/11/2012 .

  48. KeterkaitanFaktorProduksi KaitanFaktorManajemenDenganFaktorProduksi Lain Adaempatfaktorproduksipertanianyaitu: Alam (lahan, iklim, radiasimatahari, air, udara, dll), Tenagakerja, Modal, danPengelolaan (manajemen). Faktorproduksialamdantenagakerjaseringdisebutsebagaifaktorproduksi primer, faktorproduksi modal danpengolaandisebutfaktorproduksisekunder. DiunduhdariSumber: 5/11/2012 .

  49. EKSTERNALITAS Dalamprosesproduksipertanian, masukan-masukan yang berupa material, tekno¬logi, menejemendanunsur-unsur agro ekologiakandiprosesuntukmenghasilkankeluaran-keluaran yang berupahasil-hasiltanamandanternak. Hasil-hasilsampingandanlimbahdariprosesproduksitersebutdapatberupahasilsedimen, hasil air, danbahan-bahankimia yang dapatmenjadipencemarlingkungan. Limbahinibiasanyadiangkutkeluardarisistemproduksidanmenimbulkanbiayaeksternaldanefekeksternalitas. Biasanyasistemproduksipertaniandidaerahhulusungaimempunyaiefekeksternal yang cukupluasdanakandideritaolehmasyarakatdidaerahbawah. Dalamsuatudaerahaliransungai yang mempunyaibangunanpengairansepertibendungan, wadukdanjaringanirigasi, efekeksternalitastersebutmenjadisemakinserius, karenadapatmengancamkelestarianbangunan-bangunantersebut. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 5/11/2012 .

  50. EKSTERNALITAS “Eksternalitas” timbulkalaukegiatanproduksi (dankonsumsi) memilikipengaruh yang tidakdiharapkan (tidaklangsung) terhadapprodusendan /ataukonsumen lain. “Eksternalitaspositif” terjadikalaukegiatan yang dilakukanolehseseorangmemberikanmanfaatpadapihak lain tanpamelaluimekanismepasar. “Eksternalitasnegatif” terjadikalaukegiatanolehindividumenghasilkandampak yang merugikanpihak lain. Pencemaran air sungaiatau air sumurdapatditimbulkanolehprosesproduksipertanian yang berasaldaripenggunaanpestisidadanpupuk. Adanyaeksternalitasmenyebabkanterjadinyaperbedaanantaramanfaat (biaya ) sosialdenganmanfaat (biaya) privat. Perbedaanmanfaat (biaya ) iniberkaitandneganalokasisumberdaya yang tidakefisien. Pihak yang menyebabkaneksternalitastidakmemilikidoronganuntukmenanggungdampakdarikegiatannya yang dideritaolehpihak lain. DiunduhdariSumber: 5/11/2012 .