PowerPoint presentation to accompany Besterfield Quality Control, 8e Quality Control Chapter 12- Management and Planning Tools
Some Problems (Challenges) ! • Undergraduate Unemployment • Improve customer experience in a restaurant • topics for research/project • expending/relocation business entity • improve customer experience driving a car • improving health care system • What are the consequences of children watching violent television shows and playing violent video games? • ISO Implementation in an organzation
The Basic Seven Q.C. Tools? • Flow Charts • Run Charts • Histograms • Pareto Diagrams • Cause and Effect Diagrams • Scatter Diagrams • Control Charts
Relation Between New Q.C. Tools and Basic Seven Tools FACTS Data Numerical Data Verbal Data Define problem after collecting numerical data Define problem before collecting numerical data The Basic Tools The New Tools • Analytical approach • Generate Ideas • Formulate plans Organize Information
Benefits of Incorporating Q.C. Tools Enhanced Capabilities • Organize verbal data • Generate ideas • Improve planning • Eliminate errors and omissions • Explain problems intelligibly • Secure full cooperation • Persuade powerfully
Benefits of Incorporating Q.C. Tools • Assess situations from various angles • Clarify the desired situation • Prioritize tasks effectively • Proceed systematically • Anticipate future events • Change proactively • Get things right the first time
Benefits of Incorporating Q.C. Tools Five Objectives of Organizational Reform which will establish a Culture that: • Identifies problems • Gives importance to planning • Stresses the importance of the process • Prioritizes tasks • Encourages everyone to think systematically
Benefits of Incorporating Q.C. Tools Unstructured Problem [must be put into solvable form] The Seven New Tools Problem is mapped Problem becomes obvious to all Thoughts are easily organized Plans are easily laid Problem becomes obvious to all People understand problem Problem can be clearly articulated Nothing is omitted Nub of problem is identified Things go well Countermeasures are on target Cooperation is obtained Problem is in solvable form Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
Why, Why • Key to finding the root cause of a problem by focusing on the process rather than on people. • Describes the problem in specific terms and then ask “why”. • This tool is very beneficial in developing critical thinking. • It is frequently a quick method of solving problems.
Management and Planning Tools • These tools are particularly useful in structuring unstructured ideas, making strategic plans, organizing and controlling large and complex projects. • These tools are very effective for teams and, in some cases, for individuals.
Management and Planning Tools • Subjective information. • Applications of these tools has been proven useful in process improvement, cost reduction, policy deployment, and new-product development.
85% of poor quality is a result of poor work processes, not of staff doing a bad job • Processes often “go wrong” at the point of the “handoff” • Attend to improving the overall process, not just one part—some of the most complex processes are the result of creating a “work around”
Outline • Force Field Analysis • Nominal Group Technique • Affinity Diagram • Interrelationship Diagram
Outline • Tree Diagram • Matrix Diagram • Prioritization Matrices • Process Decision Program Chart • Activity Network Diagram
Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter, you should: Be able to describe the why, why, forced field, and nominal group techniques. Know how to develop and utilize the following tools: Affinity Diagram Interrelationship Diagram Tree Diagram Matrix Diagram
Learning Objectives-cont’d. When you complete this chapter, you should: Know how to develop and utilize the following tools cont’d.: Process Decision Program Chart Activity Network Diagram Prioritization Matrices
Forced Field Analysis • Identifies the forces and factors that may influence the problem or goal. • Helps an organization to better understand promoting or driving and restraining or inhibiting forces so that the positives can be reinforced and the negatives reduced or eliminated.
Forced Field Analysis Steps: • Define the objective. • Determine criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the improvement action. • Brainstorm the forces that promote and inhibit achieving the goal.
Forced Field Analysis Steps cont’d.: • Prioritize the forces from greatest to least. • Take action to strengthen the promoting forces and weaken the inhibiting forces.
Forced Field Analysis Benefits: • Determine the positives and negatives of a situation. • Encourage people to agree and prioritize the competing forces. • Identify the root causes.
What is a force-field analysis? Force-field analysis is a problem-solving tool that is used to identify the reasons (“forces”) that support two positions to a question and the strength of each force. For example, force-field analysis could be sued by a team to answer the question, “Should ABC Inc. establish an office in Singapore?” 3. Following the rules of brainstorming, have the team provide as many reasons as possible for each of the responses. As with any brainstorming session, no answer should be ignored and no critique is permitted during the brainstorming session. After this session, the team’s force field might look like the following chart: Adapted from Practicing Organization Development
Should ABC establish an office in Singapore? The facilitator will then do a quick scan of the group and count the participants’ responses. This number is then written on the chart. See sample chart on the following page.
Once the team can provide no new information to the brainstorming session, the items provided should be reviewed for clarification, duplication, and so on. Items should be reworded, if necessary, for clarification. • The next step is to identify how strong a force each item is. There are many ways to do this. One simple way is to treat each item with a five-point Likert scale. The facilitator may handle this process in the following manner: • “if you believe that the statement I read is a very strong argument for establishing an office in Singapore, hold up five fingers. If you believe that is a very weak argument for the position, hold up only one finger. How strong an argument do you think ‘High demand’ is?”
Exhibit 6-5: Conducting a Force-Field Analysis(continued) 6. Items that are perceived to be low in interest should be eliminated from the chart. In the sample chart above, items with a 1 or 2 would be removed. See sample chart below. Should ABC establish an office in Singapore? 7. Given the arguments that remain, participants would try to decide the question.
Nominal Group Technique Provides the issues/ideas input from everyone on the team and for effective decisions.
Nominal Group Technique Steps: • Everyone writes on a piece of paper the situation they think is most important. • The papers are collected, and all situations are listed on a flip chart. • Rank the situations (using another paper). Give numerical values 1… • Points for each problem are totaled and the item with the highest number of points is considered to be the most important.
Stages Preparation Introduction Idea Generation IdeaSharing Discussion Voting/Ranking
Example of NGT The faculty at X-University is concerned that the students are not getting internships and jobs. A team is created involving faculty, students, and recruiters. The goal is to identify the cause of this problem. After this NGT process, the faculty will create an action plan based on the outcome.
Example of NGT Statement of Problem: Why aren’t students getting internships and job offers?
Individual idea generation: The job market is slow. Poor interview skills. They’re not networking. Not enough recruiters come. Their resumes are weak. Students are unwilling to relocate. Students are unprepared. No internships prevents them from getting jobs later on. The career fair is not productive. Everyone wants to stay in-state.
Is the career fair not productive because there are too many people or too few? Can we re-word that to say, “There aren’t job opportunities through the career fair?” Should we combine “unwillingness to relocate” with “students wanting to stay in-state?” What do you mean by “poor interview skills?” Does that include lack of training? Discussion:
Voting/ranking: 1. Unwilling to re-locate 2. Poor interview skills 3. Weak resumes 4. Career fair doesn’t offer very many job opportunities 5. Students aren’t networking. 6. Not enough recruiters. 7. Bad job market List of ideas Individual rankings Combined points
Affinity Diagram A tool for organizing a large number of ideas, opinions, and facts relating to a broad problem or subject area.
Affinity Diagram Procedure: • State the issue in a full sentence. • Brainstorm using short sentences on self-adhesive notes. • Post them for the team to see. • Sort ideas into logical groups. • Create concise descriptive headings for each group.
Topic Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card
Activity • Innovative product features
Interrelationship Diagram • Identifies and explores causal relationships among related concepts or ideas. • It allows the team to classify the cause-and-effect relationships among all factors so that the key drivers and outcomes can be used to solve the problem.
Interrelationship Diagram Steps: • The team should agree on the issue or problem statement. • All of the ideas or issues from other techniques or from brainstorming should be laid out. • Start with the first issue. • The second iteration is to compare other issues.
Interrelationship Diagram Steps cont’d.: • The entire diagram should be reviewed and revised where necessary. • The diagram is completed by tallying the incoming and outgoing arrows and placing this information below the box.
No cause effect relationship A weak cause effect relationship A strong cause effect relationship
Interrelationship Diagram Benefits: • Allows the team to identify root causes from subjective data. • Systematically explores cause-and-effect relationships. • Encourages members to think multidirectionally. • Develops team harmony and effectiveness.
Tree Diagram Maps out the paths and tasks necessary to complete a specific project or reach a specified goal.
Tree Diagram Procedure: • Choose an action-oriented objective statement from the interrelationship diagram, affinity diagram, brainstorming, team mission statement. • Using brainstorming, choose the major headings. • Generate the next level by analyzing the major headings. Repeat this question at each level.
Tree Diagram Benefits: • Encourages team members to think creatively. • Makes large projects manageable. • Generates a problem-solving atmosphere.
Tree Diagram Example Cont. Key Strategic Factor Goals Strategies