FIRST AID I N D EX First aid concept Basic Principles of Action (P.A.S.) Initial assessment Cardio-Pulmonary resuscitation maneuvers (Basic) Security positions Obstruction of the airflow Hemorrhages, shocks, wounds, bruises and sprains Fractures and dislocations Immobilizations and bandages Burns Electricity accidents Composition of a first-aid kit Prevention of occupational accidents
IF YOU KNOW HOW TO ACT IN AN EMERGENCY SITUATION ¡¡You can save the victim's life!! FIRST AID O B J E T I V E S
INTRODUCTION WHAT IS FIRST AID? ?
FIRST AID In the event of an accident... P Protect A Alert S Succour
P.A.S. In the event of an accident... P Protect Protect the accident site to avoid other accidents Identify yourself, the location of the accident, type of accident, number of injured and circumstances that may aggravate the situation. • Calm and count the victims • Priorities • Initial evaluación • Caution in handling the victim 911 A Alert S Succour If we are alone:P – S - A
P.A.S. Is he/she conscious? Does he/she respond to the voice or to any stimulus? yes No Check breathing Place the victim in a lateral safety position Si No Lateral safety position Breathe for her
VALUATION OF THE INJURED PRIMARY VALUATION • On-the-spot • Verification of vital signs • Consciousness • Breathing • Blood flow • Pulse: 60-80 / 80-100 / 140 • Temperature: 36,5 - 37 SECONDARY VALUATION • Small interrogation • Regular check of vital signs • Comprehensive exploration
VALUATION OF THE INJURED CARDIO-RESPIRATORY ARREST Abrupt, unexpected and potentially reversible interruption of spontaneous breathing and circulation.. OBJECTIVE OF BREATHING AND CIRCULATION BREATHING:Capturing oxygen from the air, essential for cells (especially those in the brain). CIRCULATION:Bringing nutritious substances and captured oxygen by the lungs, to all tissues of the body.
BASIC C.P.R. CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION (C.P.R.) Maneuvers aimed at reversing a CARDIORESPIRATORY STOP, preventing the biological death due to irreversible damage to the vital organs (brain). TYPES: • BASIC CPR: For the population (before 4'). Guarantee the contribution of a minimum of Oxigen to the vital organs (brain and heart), until the beginning of the advanced CPR • INSTRUMENTAL CPR: For the ambulance staff (before 8'). • ADVANCED CPR: By medical staff START: when detecting cardiac or respiratory failure FINISH: When the victim recovers. When the lifeguard is exhausted or relieved When a doctor tells so
VALUTION OF THE INJURED C.P.R. PROTOCOL Start Concious Yes Breathe Yes Open the airways Lateral safety position Breathe Yes Mouth to mouth Pulse Breathe Other injuries Yes Yes Wait for signals Heart massage Mouth to mouth Check
VALUATION OF THE INJURED C.P.R PROTOCOL Avoiding dangers for both the victim and the rescuer 1.- Assess the state of consciousness 2.- Ask for help 3.- Place the victim in the CPR position. 4.- Opening and maintaining the airway 5.- Detect a respiratory stop 6.- Carotid pulse check Emergency number
VALUATION OF THE INJURED RESPIRATORY SUPPORT • PLACE THE VICTIM ON HIS BACK • FOREHEAD – CHIN MANOEUVRE. • CLOSE THE NOSE. • GIVE TWO SLOW AND EFFECTIVE RESCUE BREATHS.. • COVER THE VICTIM'S MOUTH WITH YOURS AND BLOW AT A STEADY PACE.
VALUATION OF THE INJURED 1.- CONSCIOUS / UNCONSCIOUS AND BREATHING Emergency number • Observe wounds, fractures or dislocations. • Control bleeding and airway.
VALUATION OF THE INJURED 2.- UNCONSCIOUSNESS WHEN RESPIRATORY ARREST AND/OR CARDIAC ARREST + 10” Emergency number • Confirm unconsciousness, the cessation of breathing and pulselessness. • Ask for help immediately. • Start CPR. (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation).
VALUATION OF THE INJURED Upwards Down Hips
VALUATION OF THE INJURED SEQUENCES OF RESCUE BREATHING - CHEST COMPRESSION • THE SEQUENCES: 30:2 • THE PRIORITY: GETTING HELP
VALUATION OF THE INJURED CIRCULATORY SUPPORT • PUT THE HEEL OF YOUR HAND IN THE CENTER OF THE TORAX. • PUT THE HEEL OF THE OTHER HAND ABOVE THE FIRST. • INTERLOCK YOUR FINGERS AND DO NOT PRESS ON THE RIBS. • PLACE YOURSELF VERTICALLY ON THE VICTIM'S CHEST WITH STRAIGHT ARMS. • DESCEND 4 or 5 cm DOWN THE BREASTBORN. • STOP PRESSING WITHOUT LOSING HAND - BREASTBORN CONTACT. • REPEAT MANEUVER 100 times per minute (2 compressions per second)
VALUATION OF THE INJURED BASIC LIFE SUPPORT FOR ADULTS Doesn't the victim answer? Scream for help Open the airways Doesn't he breathe normally? Call the emergency number 30 chest compressions 2 rescue breaths 30 compressions
AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION FIRST AID
AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION Treatment of airway obstruction by a foreign object (for adults) Find out severity Severe airway obstruction (unproductive cough) Airway obstruction (productive cough) Unconcious Start CPR Concious 5 interscapular blows 5 chest compressions Tell the person to cough Continue checking if the victim gets worse or if the obstruction reverses.
AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION SYMPTOMS • HE / SHE TAKES HER HAND TO THE THROAT. • PARTIAL OBSTRUCTION: THE VICTIM WILL BE ANXIOUS, WILL COUGH, WHEEZING • COMPLETE OBSTRUCTION: THE VICTIM WILL BE UNABLE TO SPEAK, BREATHE OR COUGH, AND FINALLY, WILL LOOSE CONSCIOUSNESS FIRST AID: • TELL THE VICTIM TO KEEP ON COUGHING. • BEFORE GETTING WEAK, START WITH 5 PAT IN THE BACK. • IF IT DOES NOT WORK, START WITH 5 ABDOMINAL COMPRESSIONS WORK, START WITH 5 ABDOMINAL COMPRESSIONS
FIRST AID Obstructed airways by some food (or foreign object) prevent breathing so the victim will suffocate in a few minutes. The person puts his hand to his neck. With complete obstruction the victim can not cough. If she can cough, tell her to cough. If the foreign object is visible and reachable, remove it with caution. Do not introduce it further. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION HEIMLECH MANEUVER
HEMORRHAGES - Apply constant pressure with a clean handkerchief or gauze, raising the affected limb. - If bleeding does not stop, apply pressure above the bleeding point by cutting the blood flow only in the affected artery or vein. - Do not perform tourniquets except in amputations. FIRST AID
FIRST AID SHOCK • Also called collapse. • Loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply. • It can be a consequence of intense hemorrhages, large burns, vomiting leading to dehydration, heart attacks, pulmonary embolism, allergic reactions to certain products or medications, etc. • Symptoms: Anguish, loss of consciousness, pale and cold skin, cold sweat, loss of strength, bluish lips, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, rapid and shallow breathing, etc. • Treatment: loosen the person's clothes, cover her with a blanket and supply oxygen. • If she is conscious, give her water with baking soda and salt.
FIRST AID SHOCK PREVENT COMPLICATIONS . Do not move the injured person unless absolutely necessary. . Do not leave the victim alone. GET MEDICAL AID
Wounds 1. Wash with soap and water, rinse and dry thoroughly. 2. Apply disinfectant and cover the wound with gauze. 3. Put on a clean bandage. 4. Do not remove the object that caused the wound if it is deeply inserted yet. Cover it and keep it from moving. FIRST AID
Bruises and sprains 1. Apply cold compresses to the affected area. 2. Bandage to keep the cold compress fixed. 3. Immobilization and rest. FIRST AID
Nosebleeds Compress the nose in the softest area, just below the bone. (Minimum ten minutes). Place the victim seated and with the head slightly leaning forward over a container. Put a hydrogen peroxide soaked gauze in the bleedy nostril by introducing it gradually Instruct the patient to breathe through the mouth and to avoid swallowing blood. Apply local cold. HEMORRHAGES
FIRST AID Fractures 1. Immobilize the affected area by holding the affected limb with a board, including the nearest joints. 2. Do not attempt to force a fracture back into place 3. Hold the fractured limb stopping from moving. Types of fractures Greenstick (incomplete) Transverse Simple
FIRST AID DISLOCATION: Injury of a joint characterized by the loss of contact between the joint surfaces, because of a tear of the joint capsule by traumatisms or local pathological processes.
LUXATION FIRST AID . Immobilize the affected joint. • Remain as still as possible. • Do not try to force an affecte limb back into place under any circumstances. • Do not administer any medication • Transfer to a hospital to perform the medical tests and, if necessary, place a splint.
FIRST AID IMMOBILIZATIONS AND BANDAGES
FIRST AID IMMOBILIZATIONS - SPLINTS
FIRST AID TYPES OF BANDAGES Function Material Type of bandage Protective Compressive Immobilizer Corrective Mixed Roll Triangular Sticking plaster Circular Spiral Eight
Burns 1st and 2nd degree burns: keep the burned area under cold water for about ten minutes or until the pain stops; place cold compresses in the area. Severe burns: cover the burned area with a sterile soaked compress and fasten with a bandage. Do not touch the burned area. Do not apply lotions or ointments; Do not break blisters. Do not remove the clothes if they are attached. If the person is unconscious: place in position to keep the airway free . Wrap her in a sheet and go to a hospital center. FIRST AID
FIRST AID Electrocution 1. Do not touch the victim while in contact with the power source. Disconnect the power. 2. If possible, stay on a dry insulation and use any non-conductive material (wood, glass, rubber) to separate the victim from the electric current. The victim is probably in cardio-respiratory arrest. If so, perform CPR.
FIRST AID First aid kit. First aid material in the workplace. There must be a portable first aid kit with: - Disinfectants - Disposable gloves - Tweezers - Scissors - Antiseptics - Adhesive dressings - Gauzes - Plaster - Cotton - Bandages THE MATERIAL • Adapted to the staff • Easy access • Revised and replaced periodically • Clearly signposted
FIRST AID KIT • Compresses or sterile gauze. • Bandages of different sizes of 5x5 and 10x10. • Strips of rubber with edges. • Fabric, hypoallergenic or adhesive plaster. • Elastic bandages of 5x5 and 10x10 and tubular bandages of No. 1 and No. 4. • Self-adhesive dressings of 6x7 and 9x15 and hemostatic dressings. • Cutaneous sutures • Antiseptics such as Betadine, Hibitane, alcohol, crystalline, etc. • Latex gloves and sterile gloves. • Scissors, tweezers and scalpel blades. • Rubber compressor
FIRST AID KIT • Pocket mask with additional oxygen input for CPR. • Syringes of 5 and 10 c.c. and 0.8x40 and 0.9x25 needles. • Ammonia pencil • Healing compresses. • Corticoid ointments, antihistamines for burns. • Analgesics and antipyretics (aspirin, paracetamol, metamizole). • Tablets for dizziness and for vomiting. • salin solution or salt and bicarbonate envelopes (anti-shock drink: 1 lit water + 1 teaspoon of salt and a half of coffee).
FIRST AID WORKPLACE ACCIDENT PREVENTION
FIRST AID Frequent accidents at working environment
FIRST AID FALLS, BLOWS, ATTRAPMENTS AND OVEREXECTION Do not move, local cold, Basic Vital support(B.L.S.) CUT BY OBJECTS OR TOOLS Wounds: Control hemorrhages, do not explore them, cover them, B.L.S. THERMAL, ELECTRICAL CONTACTS AND WITH CAUSTIC OR CORROSIVE SUBSTANCES Burns: Remove from heat source, cool, cover, S.V.B. The chemicals: wash with plenty of water DO NOT induce vomiting in case of chemical ingestion, B.L.S.
Spinal column injuries If you can get medical assistance do not mobilize the victim, if not, prepare the injured person for transport.Slide a wide board under the victim, as carefully as possible. Perform traction on the neck to prevent injury. FIRST AID DO NOT MOVE
Bites and stings Wash the wound with soap and water. Control the bleeding by compressing with a dressing until it stops. Sell the wound Insect bites: If the sting was left on the skin it should be removed by scraping it gently. Then, apply diluted ammonia or iodine. FIRST AID
Convulsive Seizures Do not avoid seizures, make sure that the person does not hurt herself during them. Do not try to open her mouth by force. Before the victim collapses, lie her to the ground. When the seizures are over, loosen anything that oppresses and makes breathing difficult. Place the person in safety position, check for any serious injury. Wrap her up FIRST AID
FIRST AID EXPOSURE / INHALATION OF TOXIC OR HARMFUL SUBSTANCES INHALATION OF GASES: • TAKE OUT THE PERSON FROM THE AREA • SECURITY IS A PRIORITY (your own security, the victim's and others's) • BASIC VITAL SUPPORT.