Chapter 16 The Civil War (1861-1865) Section 3 Life During the War
Section 3-Polling Question • A • B • C • D What change in daily life do you think would be most significantly during wartime? A.Women would enter the workforce in ways they had not done before. B.Education and school would be suspended for many children. C.People would have to give up some luxuries and even necessities. D.Travel would be limited and dangerous.
Essential Question What social, political, and economic changes resulted from the war?
Life at Home • Many teenagers served in the military • Left family, friends, and school • Schools closed during the war in some areas • Especially where battles were • Schools and churches served as hospitals for the wounded
Shortages in the South • Life in the South changed dramatically • Both armies were in the South, therefore the South suffered the greatest destruction • Families lost their homes and crops because of soldiers • The South depended on the outside world “for everything from a hairpin to a toothpick, and from a cradle to a coffin” • As the war went on, shortages of food, supplies, and even household items became common
Treating the Sick and Wounded • 1000s of women served as nurses • Many believed that nursing was for men, and it was improper for women to tend to the bodies of unknown men • Strong minded women disregarded these objections • Mary Edwards Walker became the first woman army surgeon and later won the Congressional Medal of Honor • Dorothea Dix convinced officials to allow women to work as nurses and also recruited women to serve • Clara Barton worked with wounded soldiers • Sally Thompson established a hospital for soldiers in Richmond, Virginia
Spies • Women also served as spies • For both sides • Belle Boyd informed Confederate generals of Union army movements • Some women disguised themselves as men and became soldiers • Loretta Janeta Velazquez fought for the South at the 1st Bull Run and Shiloh • Velazquez later became a spy • Harriet Tubman served as a spy and scout for the Union
In the Hands of the Enemy • Both sides had prison camps • Prisoners could keep a blanket and a cup • Volunteers distributed bread and soup • Food shortages led to soldiers getting little or no food • Andersonville prison, in Georgia, was overcrowded and many died (mostly from disease) • Union prison camps (like Elmira, New York) were no better
Field Hospitals • Hospitals were set up by battlefields • Doctors struggled to care for all the wounded • Diseases often killed more soldiers than battle • Soldiers were crowded together and drank unsanitary water • Smallpox, dysentery, typhoid, and pneumonia were very dangerous
In the South • Many Southerners opposed the war • After 2 year, the war had taken huge amounts of food, materials, and money • Bread riots erupted in the South because of hungry people • A mob, of mostly women and children, met in Richmond for a peaceful protest • Soon they started smashing shop windows and stealing food
In the North • People in the North also opposed the war (Democratic Party) • The Democratic Party split into the War Democrats and the Peace Democrats • War Democrats were critical of how the Republicans ran the war • The Peace Democrats wanted an immediate end to fighting • The Peace Democrats were seen by some as traitors and called Copperheads
Jail Without Trial • To deal with war opponents in the North, Lincoln suspended habeas corpus • People could be put in jail without a trial • The Constitution provides that habeas corpus can be suspended only “when in cases or rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it” • 1000s were put in jail • When people spoke out against the suspension, they were labeled treasonous Copperheads • In the South, Jefferson Davis also suspended Habeas Corpus
Draft Laws- The South • Both sides had trouble recruiting troops • 1862- Confederate Congress passed a draft law • Required able-bodied white men between 18 and 35 had to serve for 3 years • Later changed to age 17 to 50 • A man could also hire a substitute to serve for him • Later, if a man had more than 20 slaves, he did not have to serve
Draft Laws- In the North • The North offered a bounty for volunteers (at first) • March 1863- The Union also passed a draft law • All men 20 to 45 had to register • They too could hire a substitute or could pay $300 • People in the North and South complained it was “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”
Draft Laws • Antidraft feelings led to riots • New York City: July 1863- members of the working class (Many Irish immigrants) attacked government and military buildings • They attacked African Americans • Many white workers opposed the Emancipation Proclamation fearing loss of jobs • After four days of terror, more than 100 were dead • Federal troops had to stop the riots
Economic Effects • The economies of both were strained • The North had greater resources, and was able to cope better with the cost of the war • The two governments paid for the war in three ways • 1. Sold bonds promising high interest • 2. Imposed new taxes, including income taxes • 3. Printed money • Northern money was called greenbacks because of its color
The North Prospers • Northern industry prospered from the war • They produced guns, ammunition, shoes, and uniforms • Farmers sold crops to supply food for the troops • However prices rose faster than wages because goods were in high demand • This inflation caused a great hardship for working people • Still, the Northern economy boomed during the war years
Economic Troubles in the South • In the South, the war destroyed farmland and railroad lines • The blockade prevented the shipping of trade goods • Vital materials could not reach the Confederates • Salt was so desperately needed that women scraped the floors of smokehouses to remove it • Food shortages led to riots • Inflation was worse in the South
Essential Question • What social, political, and economic changes resulted from the war? • Social- Women’s roles changed during the was as they had more opportunity and responsibility • Political- There were many political disagreements in the North and South over the war and the economy • Economic- The war was expensive for the North and South, and both sides had to try to raise money to pay for the war, as well as establish new policies for keeping the economy going
No one under the age of 18 could join the army. • True • False
The South was self-sufficient because of its many resources. • True • False
Belle Boyd spied for the South. • True • False
Habeas corpus guarantees accused individuals the right to a hearing before being jailed. • True • False
Providing food for the soldiers made Southern farmers very wealthy. • True • False
Which woman fought for the Confederacy at the First Battle of Bull Run? • Rose O'Neal Greenhow • Loretta Janeta Velázquez • Belle Boyd • Harriet Tubman
Who was the Southerner who established a hospital for soldiers in Richmond, Virginia? • Sally Tompkins • Robert E. Lee • William Sheppard • Clara Barton
The law that required men between certain ages to serve in the army for three years was the • corpus. • bounty. • draft. • habeas corpus.
The worst disturbance concerning opposition to draft laws took place in • Washington, D.C. • Richmond. • Charleston. • New York City.
To raise money for the war, the North printed • greenbacks. • paper checks. • handbills. • promissory notes.