Unani medicine is one of the oldest medicine in the world.It is still practiced in all parts of the world but mostly is it practiced in India. • Unanimedicine is an ancient form of medicine first developed by the Greeks in 460 BC. It then spread throughout the Roman empire by notable scientists such as Galen (201 AD). With the fall of the Roman empire came the decline in unani medicine. • It re-emerged later in Iran, where Muslim physicians translated the unani texts into Arabic. While in the middle east, Muslim physicians begin to refine and further develop unani medicine. • India was then introduced to unani medicine in the 13th century through the numerous Muslim invasions. Today, unani medicine is practiced mainly in India by Muslim physicians (called "Hakim"). Introduction
Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu, etc) means "Greek". It derives from the Greek word Ionia, the Greek name of the Asia Minor coastline, from the Arabic word for Greece: "al-Yunaan".Hippocrates are the people who freed the medicine from realm of Superstition and Magic and gave it the status of Science.Hippocrates are regarded as the "Father Of Unani Medicine” The word "Unani" (meaning "Ionian") reflects the strong Greek influence to this tradition of medicine, but the origins of the traditional Oriental medicine known as "Unani - Tibb" begin with the famous physician, Avicenna. Also known by the name Hakim Abu Ali Abdullah HusaynIbnSina, this physician and naturalist was so advanced in his insights and dedicated to his studies that he mastered a great deal of the medical knowledge of his day when he was barely a teenager. Understanding Avicenna's writings in depth would tax the resources of the greatest intellects of our time. Now Unanipathy has become a part of Indian system of Medicine and India is one of the leading countries so far as its practice is concerned. It is very much similar to our Ayurveda.
PRINCIPLES OF UNANI SYSTEM The Unani medicine is divided into two parts • Theory • Practice Theory is divided into three parts: • The theory of Naturals • The theory of Causes • The theory of Signs
There are seven things which are natural, they are • Elements (arkan) • Temperaments (mizaj) • Humors (akhlat) • Organs (aza) • Forces (arwah) • Actions (afa'al) • Spirits (quva) NATURALS
ELEMENTS There are four basic elements on which unani system of medicine depends: • Fire (aag) • Air (hawa) • Water (pani) • Earth (mitti) The force of fire is hot and dry. The force of air is hot and wet. The force of water is cold and wet.The force of earth is cold and dry.
TEMPERAMENTS • There are nine kinds of temperaments in which eight are non-equable and one is equable. Of the eight non-equable, four are single: hot, cold, wet, and dry; and four are compound: hot and dry, hot and wet, cold and dry, and cold and wet. • Unanihakims can classify patients according to their temperament. hot temperament individuals are physically strong, have good digestion, and a quick temper moist temperament individuals are obese and excessively salivate cold and dry temperament individuals have a good appetite and prominent blood vessels
HUMARS There are four kinds of humors: • Blood (dam) • Phlegm (balgham) • Yellow bile (safra) • Black bile (sauda) The force of blood is hot and wet. The force of phlegm is cold and wet. The force of yellow bile is hot and dry. The force of black bile is cold and dry.
ORGANS There are four kinds of organs: • Some are principal organs, comparable to elements and metals; these are four: the brain, the heart, the liver, and the two testicles (in the female, the two ovaries). • Others are servants to these principal organs
FORCES There are three kinds of forces: • Natural • Vital • Psychic
ACTIONS There are two kinds of actions: • Some are single: These are the actions that are achieved each by a single force, like attraction, retention, digestion, and propulsion. • Others are compound- These are achieved by two or more forces.
SPIRITS There are three kinds of Spirits: • Natural spirit: Emanates from the liver, penetrates through the veins into the whole body, and is servant to the natural forces • Vital spirit: Emanates from the heart, penetrates through the arteries into the whole body, and is servant to the vital forces. • Psychic spirit: Emanates from the brain, penetrates through the nerves into the whole body and is servant to the psychic forces.
PREPARATIONS • Remedies are often provided by the practitioner or are obtained from a specialized herbalist. • The ingredients are mainly herbs and honey. It must be noted that the honey used will be raw and unadulterated, rather than the type found in supermarkets, which is usually heat-treated.A famous and widely used medicinal herb is black cumin (Nigella sativa), also known as Hab Al Baraka in Arabic, which means blessed seed. Black cumin has been cultivated since Assyrian times and it is beneficial for a very long list of ailments. It is widely mixed with other herbs for greater beneficial effect and is said to strengthen the immune system when taken over a period of time. Research has proved that it has the ability to slow the division of cancer cells.
FOOD AS MEDICINE • In common with many traditional sources of medicine, Unani-Tibb emphasizes the use of flavors and tastes to adjust the imbalances which contribute to disease. • The choices of foods and the manner in which they are prepared are considered to be among the most important issues to consider when choosing a diet to improve or maintain health. • Skillful use of warming and cooling spices and herbs contribute heavily to the appropriateness of the meal to correct the root causes of imbalances.Each ingredient in a meal affects the heat or cold balance of the body differently and may also influence factors of the humouralsystem. • The tastes, salty, sweet, bitter, pungent, and sour also affect the humoural system, as do various qualities that are more subtle than the five tastes normally considered. The aromas which are given off during the preparation and cooking phase, as well as those emitted during the consumption of the meal, and even some post digestive transformations, contribute to the healing benefit of a well conceived meal. It is in this way that Hippocrates intended physicians to "make food your medicine".
FOOD AS POISON • Modern urban society accepts the concept of the business lunch, but this type of environment is generally not a conducive atmosphere to digestion. • From a traditional perspective, the primary agenda for any meal is to benefit from the medicinal quality of food. • Any factor which interferes with this agenda degrades the value of the meal inasmuch as nutrition is concerned. • Multi tasking does not enhance Digestion-anothr modern habit which had caused a deterioration in the health value of a meal is attempting to combine the experience with that of work, entertainment, or travel. Eating while reading, watching television, driving, or talking on the phone will all detract from the nutritional value of a meal, according to the traditions of Unani-Tibb. I have also observed that when patients engage in these distractions, they not only fail to observe the pleasure and satisfaction of eating, but there is also a tendency to overeat.
DIAGNOSIS • The diagnosis of diseases in Unani system of medicine is through examination of pulse(nabz), urine(baul) and stool(baraz). • This system observes the influence of surroundings and ecological conditions such as air, food, drinks, body movement and repose, psychic movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness and excretion and retention on the state of health. This influence causes a dominance of one of the four humours in every human body. Unani believes that it is this dominance which gives a man his individual habit and complexion i.e his temperament.
MAINTENCE OF GOOD HEALTH Unaniphilosophy dictates that good health can be maintained if the relative proportions of 4 humors are kept stable. Keeping this in mind, hakims advocate 6 methods to keep these humors in balance: • Inhalation of pure air. • Moderate intake of foods and drinks -- too much or too little of certain foods and drinks can stimulate an imbalance in the proportions of the humors. • Proper excretion is necessary. • Adequate sleep is needed -- excess or deficiencies can both lead to poor health. • Moderate exercise -- can be accomplished through yoga. • Mental peace -- can be accomplished through meditation.
MEDICAL INNOVATIONS INTRODUCED BY UNANI SYSTEM • Avicenna was the first to describe meningitis, intubation (surgical procedure to facilitate breathing), contamination of the body by "foreign bodies" prior to infection, tuberculosis as being a communicable disease,surgical treatment of cancer. • Al Razi was the first to describe smallpox and measles. • The Arab surgeon, Al Zahrawi was the first to describe hemophilia and also the first surgeon in history to use cotton Avicenna
TREATMENTS The Hakims (Unani physicians) believe in four lines of treatment: Regimental therapy (Haj bit tadbeer) - this includes • Exercise- regular and correct massage, steam baths, fomentation, emesis, purging and enema. • Diet-o-therapy (hajbilghiza)- this covers a normal diet, liquid diet for flushing out the system, and a semi-solid diet that will allow the digestive system a rest without resorting to the comparative extreme of a liquid diet. • Pharmacotherapy (haj bid dawa) - the prescription of medicines derived from animal, mineral or plant sources.Most of the drugs are of herbal origin. These are prepared such that there are no side- effects. • Surgery (jarahat) - this includes venesection, cupping, leeching and cauterization.
PREVENTION AND CURE Looking more to prevention than cure, Unani medicine holds that close attention to six essential factors will ensure a “Disease-and-stress-free life”. • These factors are: air, food and drink, physical activity and rest, mental activity and repose, sleeping habits, and retention & evacuation.
BENEFITS Unani- tibbipractitioners still treat people with herbal remedies and manipulation, for a variety of illnesses. In the Islamic world, many of the poorer people who cannot afford“Allopathic medicine” still resort to this traditional medicine. There are also people who prefer unani-tibbi to allopathic medicine, as indeed, the traditional unani-tibbi remedies do not bring with them the side effects commonly experienced with allopathic drugs.
Made By: Ekta Jain First year Group 2