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Positive Behavioral Supports in Transition Planning for Students with Severe Disabilities

Positive Behavioral Supports in Transition Planning for Students with Severe Disabilities

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Positive Behavioral Supports in Transition Planning for Students with Severe Disabilities

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  1. Positive Behavioral Supports in Transition Planning for Students with Severe Disabilities By Lori Metcalf, Ed. S., NCSP and Jennifer Burnes, M. Ed, M.S.

  2. Overview • Definitions • Behavior Plan • Functional Behavior Assessment • Goals • Strategic Plan • Impacts to Transition • Conclusion

  3. Significant Cognitive Disabilities • Low-incidence disabilities • Need for extensive supports • Those individuals, who are most at risk for being excluded from society; perceived by traditional service systems as most challenging; most likely to have their rights abridged; most likely to be at risk for living, working, playing and learning in segregated environments; least likely to have the tools and opportunities necessary to advocate on their behalf; and are most likely to need ongoing, individualized supports to participate in inclusive communities and enjoy a quality of life similar to that available to all people. (TASH, 2013)

  4. Transition Planning • Collaborative process • Results-oriented process • Facilitates movement from school to post-secondary activities • Postsecondary education • Vocational education • Integrated employment • Continuing and adult education • Adult services • Independent living • Community participation • Needs based • Strengths • Preferences • Interests • Includes: • Instruction • Related services • Community experiences • Development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives • If appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational evaluation. (IDEA, 2004)

  5. Positive Behavior Supports PBS - Application of positive behavioral interventions and/or programs that increase the likelihood of enhanced socially significant behavior changes. • Takes in account the context in which the behavior occurs. • Addresses function of the behavior. • Interventions that can be justified by their outcomes. • Outcomes are socially significant (Sugai, et al., 2000).

  6. Behavior Plan/Behavior Change Proactive action plan to address behavior(s) that are hindering learning and the education of the student or others (PENT). • Sometimes referred to as a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP). • Addresses the functionality of problematic behaviors. • States goals that are measurable and addresses the increase or decrease of the behavior to promote student success. • Includes a plan to change the environment to enhance behavior in a positive way. • The use of positive behavior interventions to change behavior (Cain)

  7. Why Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)? • Although children’s behavior may look alike (e.g., hitting, shouting, spitting, screaming, refusal to follow directions, and complete assignments), the functions and causes can be very different. • The FBA looks at all settings that surround the student such as biological, social, and environmental. It does not look specifically at the behavior.

  8. Why FBA? FBAs Create a “win-win” situation for teachers and the student. • Leads toward positive replacement behaviors through the use of intervention which may have long-term effects. (Witt, Daly, & Noell, 2000).

  9. What is a FBA? • FBA is a process of gathering data from multiple sources to identify information about what happens right before a behavior (antecedents), the problem behavior, and what happens right after the behavior (consequence) (Barnhill, 2005; Crone, Hawkin, & Bergstrom, 2007). • Results are used to guide in designing an intervention for decreasing the problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007).

  10. Background Information • Multiple Sources/Settings • Teachers • Parents • Support Staff • Lunch room/recess/specials (e.g., Music, P.E., Art) • School Performance • Grades • Behavior Referrals

  11. Observation Frequency/Event Recording Data Collection Sheet Student _________________________________________ Observer _______________________ Dates of Observation __________________________________________________________________ Complete Behavior Description __________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Date/Time Total Start Stop Occurrences _______________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

  12. Observations/ABC Picture of a behavior log with column headings “date/time, setting, antecedent, behavior, and consequence.”

  13. Hypothesis Consider all the data: • What patterns of behavior were demonstrated? • Did the behavior occur following the antecedent? • Does the behavior occur at other times? • What consequences immediately follow the behavior? 2. Can the behavior be attributed to anything else (i.e., medical conditions, outside variables, etc.)? • Based on the data, a hypothesis should be developed that determines the function (cause) of the problematic behavior.

  14. Functions • Reinforcement • Avoidance/Escape • Tangible Reinforcement • Sensory • Attention

  15. Next Step: Goals • Based on outcome of FBA: • Observable • Measurable • Increase acceptable behavior • Reduce problem behavior • Foster success in academic or employment settings • Expected performance level

  16. Goals • Goals • Focused on general outcomes vs. many focused on sub-skill mastery • Example • By the end of 1st semester, Dakota will increase time on task to 15 minutes during independent reading time.

  17. Strategic Planning • Environment • Frequent Opportunities for Reinforcement • Social Skill Training

  18. PBS  Transition • Problem behaviors = Barrier to inclusion • Impacts classroom, community, employment settings

  19. PBS  Transition • PBS • Is individualized • Consistent with self-determination • Encourages independent decision making • Allows individual control • Allows individual to exert influence without exhibiting problem behaviors (Renzaglia, Karvonen, Drasgow, & Stoxen, 2003)

  20. Impacts to Transition • Empirically Supported Interventions • Align with PBS • Increases • Choice making • Decision making • Problem solving • Goal setting and attainment • Self-advocacy • Self-awareness • Self-instruction (Wehmeyer, 2003)

  21. Impacts to Transition • Empirically supported interventions • Align with PBS • Decreases • Maladaptive behavior

  22. Choice-making • Opportunities for choice-making • Reduces problem behavior • Provides level of control • Relates to PBS-personal preferences (Wehmeyer, Baker, Blumberg, & Harrison, 2004)

  23. Choice-making • Visual schedules • Self-management • Sequential reminders • Tandem use of routine schedule with choices included • Increases • Independence • Self-initiation of leisure activities • Generalize from classroom use to employment and/or independent living arrangements (Mesibov, G. V., Browder, D. M., & Kirkland, C., 2002)

  24. Problem Behaviors and Self-Determination • More problem behavior • Higher self-determination? • Communication limitations • Greater opportunity to exert self-determination • Student self-assertion

  25. Conclusions • Difficult behaviors are barriers to greater societal inclusion • PBS: • Addresses difficult behaviors • Allows personal control • Produces change that positively impacts how individuals live their lives • Ultimately, can positively influence transition outcomes

  26. Calvin and Hobbes Cartoon Calvin is sitting at desk. Calvin is becoming restless. Calvin screams out, “BORRRING” Calvin is walking to the principal’s office and states, “Yeah, Yeah…Kill the messenger.”

  27. Contact Information Lori Metcalf, Ed. S., NSCP Graduate Research Assistant Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment Jennifer Burnes, M. Ed., M.S. Graduate Research Assistant Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment

  28. References Barnhill, G. P. 2005. Functional behavioral assessment in schools. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40, 131-143. Cain, R. (n.d.). Writing the behavior support plan. Retrieved from Crone, D. A., Hawken, L. S., & Bergstrom M. K. (2007) A demonstration of training, implementing, and using functional behavioral assessment in 10 elementary and middle school settings. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 9, 15-29. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Mesibov, G. B., Browder, D. M., & Kirkland, C. (2002). Using individualized schedules as a component of positive behavioral support for students with developmental disabilities. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 4, 73-79. doi: 10.1177/109830070200400202

  29. References Positive Environments, Network of Trainers (PENT). Retrieved from Renzaglia, A., Karvonen, M., Drasgow, E., & Stoxen, C. C. (2003). Promoting a lifetime of inclusion. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18, 140-149. Sergei, G., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G., Hieneman, M., Lewis, T. J., Nelson, C. M., Scott, T., … Ruef, M. (2000). Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 131-143. Wehman, P., Smith, M. D., & Schall, C. (2009). Autism & the transition to adulthood. Baltimore, MD: Brooks. Witt, J. C., Daly III, E. J., & Noell, G. H. (2000). Functional assessments. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

  30. References Wehmeyer, M. L. (2003). Self-determination: A review of the construct. In M. Wehmeyer, B. Abery, D. Mithaug, & R. Stancliffe (Eds.), Theory in self-determination (pp. 5-24). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Wehmeyer, M. L., Baker, D. J., Blumberg, R., & Harrison, R. (2004). Self-determination and student involvement in functional assessment: Innovative practices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, 29-35.