GISP Meeting10-11 November 2003,Khon Kaen ThailandCountry ReportClimate and Flood Pattern in Lao P.D.RBy Khanmany KhounPhonhHead of Technical DivisionDepartment of Meteorology and HydrologyTel&Fax: (856-21) 223446, E-Mail: email@example.comVientiane Lao P.D.R
Contents:I. Introduction - General Information - History - Role and Function II. Technical Condition III. Historic Flood pattern IV. Monsoon Heavy Rainfall of the year 2002 V.Conclusion
I. Introduction: • General information: - Lao P.D.R is Land lock country , Located at the Center of Southeast Asia. - Border sharing by: North: China, Northeast: Myanmar West: Thailand,East: Vietnam and South: Cambodia - Total Land area: 236,800 Km2 -Population of Lao P.D.R: 5,377,000Peoples, with the majority residing in rural area with 47 ethnic groups. - The Mekong River Stretches 1,865 Km from the Northern Border drains south to South China sea. - Lao P.D.R has an abundance of forest and water resource. - Water is the most important natural resources with developent potential for hydropower electric.
Climate is tropical with wet and dry seasons, and Dominated by 2 monsoons: * The Northeast Monsoon: (From November to Mid-March) * The Southwest Monsoon: (From Mid-May to Mid-October) - The latter being characterized by frequent and heavy Rainfall and high Humidity.A short drought about two weeks is normally experienced between of the end June and the beginning of July. - Cyclone disturbances or the passage of ITCZ often causes heavy Rainfall * The annual rainfall ranges from 1,400 to 3,500 mm. * The temperature is highest in Apil (35oC-38oC) and Lowest in December to January (13oC –17oC).The annual average is 26oC. History:- The first rainfall Station was installed in the year 1900 by French Army. - The Meteorological Stations(Luangprabang,Vientiane,Savannakhet) before 1954 were under the management of French Indochina based in Hanoi Vietnam.
Role and Function:- D.M.H is Governmental Organization and also national Agency- The main role is to provide the weather, climate, hydrological data to meet national responsibilities in particularly WMO Programs.D.M.H is composed of the following Division:- Administration Division - Technical Division - Weather forecast and Aero-meteorological Division - Meteorological Network and Agro-Meteorology - Climatological Division - Hydrological Division - Hydro-Meteorological Services of 18 Provinces
II. Technical Condition: • The observation Network consist of: - 17 Synoptic Stations - 18 Climatic Stations - 110 Rainfall posts. • The Synoptic Station Mainly Located near the Airport • Due to limited facilities ,staff and budgets the surface observation are mostly done 4 observations during the day time.
III. Historic Flood Pattern:- On the average of 2 or 3tropical storm reached or passed over Lao P.D.R, except Elnino Year.- In Lao P.D.R , The tropical cyclone are not a direct threat.- Flooding along the Mekong river result from heavy monsoon rainfall and tropical cyclone originating in the south of China sea during the period August and September.- Lao P.D.R has experienced 24 floods on the Mekong river in the last 32 years ( From 1996-1997).- Of 24 historic Floods only four years were large,covering whole the country ( 1996,1971,1978 and 1995).
Daily rainfall recorded on 16-19 August 2002: Station 16/8/02 17/8/02 18/8/02 19/8/02 Hoeixay 1.5 76.1 76.0 0.0 Luangprabang 5.5 65.6 40.5 0.0 Sayabouly 2.6 5.9 48.5 0.0 PhoneHong 1.2 14.5 56.0 1.6 Vientiane 1.0 11.1 52.9 4.6 Paksane 97.0 12.8 28.4 59.1 Thakhek 7.8 20.2 5.7 6.3 Savannakhet 1.1 1.0 2.8 69.6 Saravanne 46.0 56.1 41.6 30.5 Pakse 7.2 127.4 13.2 21.8 Paksong 72.0 92.4 18.3 175.9 Attapeu 46.0 5.0 41.1 57.2 Sekong 56.8 19.6 38.4 40.0 IV. Monsoon heavy rainfall in August 2002:The onset of southwest monsoon this year took place earlier than Normal with weekly intensity over Lao P.D.R .During 17-18 August 2002 the strong southwest monsoon covered all part of Country, where continuous rain observed in the Northern and Central of the Country.As result of Rainfall and Flood damage in the table below:
V. Conclusion:- In Lao P.D.R the heavy rainfall associated with tropical disturbance caused frequently severe flooding and the flood occurred over low-lying areas along the Mekong River.Rice production occupies over 80% of cultivated.For the foreseeable future the agricultural sector remain a key to providing employment to the majority of the population and to alleviating propery.