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## Chapter 11: Properties of Gases

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**Chapter 11: Properties of Gases**Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop**Properties of Common Gases**• Despite wide differences in chemical properties, all gases more or less obey the same set of physicalproperties. Four Physical Properties of Gases • Inter-related • Pressure (P) • Volume (V ) • Temperature (T ) • Amount = moles (n)**Pressure: Measurement and Units**• Pressure is force per unit area • Earth exerts gravitational force on everything with mass near it • Weight • Measure of gravitational force that earth exerts on objects with mass • What we call weight is gravitational force acting on object**Force vs. Pressure**• Consider a woman wearing flat shoes vs. high "spike" heels • Weight of woman is same = 120 lbs • Pressure on floor differs greatly Why flight attendants cannot wear spike heels!**Ways to Measure Pressure**• Atmospheric Pressure • Resulting force per unit area • When earth's gravity acts on molecules in air • Pressure due to air molecules colliding with object • Barometer • Instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure**Toricelli Barometer**• Simplest barometer • Tube that is 80 cm in length • Sealed at one end • Filled with mercury • In dish filled with mercury**Toricelli Barometer**• Air pressure • Pushes down on mercury • Forces mercury up tube • Weight of mercury in tube • Pushes down on mercury in dish • When two forces balance • Mercury level stabilizes • Read atmospheric pressure**Toricelli Barometer**• If air pressure is high • Pushes down on mercury in dish • Increase inlevel in tube • If air pressure is low • Pressure on mercury in dish less than pressure from column • Decreaselevel in tube Result: • Height of mercury in tube is the atmospheric pressure**Standard Atmospheric Pressure**• Typical range of pressure for most places where people live 730 to 760 mm Hg • Top of Mt. Everest Air pressure = 250 mm Hg Standard atmosphere (atm) • Average pressure at sea level • Pressure needed to support column of mercury 760 mm high measures at 0 °C**Units of Pressure**• SI unit for pressure • Pascal = Pa • Very small • 1atm = 101,325 Pa = 101 kPa • Other units of pressure • An atm too big for most lab work • 1.013 Bar = 1013 mBar = 1 atm • 760 mm Hg = 1 atm • 760 torr = 1 atm At sea level 1 torr = 1 mm Hg**Manometers**• Used to measure pressure inside closed reaction vessels • Pressure changes caused by gases produced or used up during chemical reaction • Open-end manometer • U tube partly filled with liquid (usually mercury) • One arm open to atmosphere • One arm exposed to trapped gas in vessel**Open Ended Manometer**Pgas > Patm Gas pushes mercury up tube Pgas < Patm Atmosphere pushes mercury down tube Pgas = Patm**Ex. Using Open Ended Manometers**A student collected a gas in an apparatus connected to an open-end manometer. The mercury in the column open to the air was 120 mm higher and the atmospheric pressure was measured to be 752 torr. What was the pressure of the gas in the apparatus? This is a case of Pgas > Patm Pgas = 752 torr + 120 torr = 872 torr**Ex. Using Open Ended Manometers**In another experiment, it was found that the mercury level in the arm of the manometer attached to the container of gas was 200 mm higher than in the arm open to the air. What was the pressure of the gas? This is a case of Pgas < Patm Pgas = 752 torr – 200 torr = 552 torr**Closed-end Manometer**• Arm farthest from vessel (gas) sealed • Tube filled with mercury • Then open system to flask and some mercury drains out of sealed arm • Vacuum exists above mercury in sealed arm**Closed-end Manometer**• Level of mercury in arm falls, as not enough pressure in the flask to hold up Hg • Patm = 0 • Pgas = PHg • So directly read pressure**Your Turn!**Gas pressure is measured using a close-ended mercury manometer. The height of fluid in the manometer is 23.7 in. Hg. What is this pressure in atm? • 23.7 atm • 0.792 atm • 602 atm • 1.61 atm 0.792 atm**Comparison of Hg and H2O**• Pressure of 1 mm column of mercury and 13.6 mm column of water are the same • Mercury is 13.6 times more dense than water • Both columns have same weight and diameter, so they exert same pressure d = 13.6 g/mL d = 1.00 g/mL**Using Liquids Other Than Mercury in Manometers and**Barometers • Simple relationship exists between two systems. • For example, use water (d = 1.00 g/mL) instead of mercury (d = 13.6 g/mL) in the tube • Use this relationship to convert pressure change in mm H2O to pressure change in mm Hg For converting from mm Hg to mm H2O In general**Example: Converting mm Acetone to mm Hg**Acetone has a density of 0.791 g/mL. Acetone is used in an open-ended manometer to measure a gas pressure slightly greater than atmospheric pressure, which is 756 mm Hg at the time of the measurement. The liquid level is 20.4 mm higher in the open arm than in the arm nearest the gas sample. What is the gas pressure in torr?**Ex. Converting mm Acetone to mm Hg - Solution**First convert mm acetone to mm Hg Then add PHg to Patm to get Ptotal • Pgas = Patm + PHg • = 756.0 torr + 1.19 torr • Pgas = 757.2 torr**Boyle’s Law**• Studied relationship between P and V • Work done at constant T as well as constant number of moles (n) • T1= T2 • AsV decreases,P increases**Charles’s Law**• Charles worked on relationship of how V changes with T • Kept P and n constant • Demonstrated Vincreases as T increases**Low T, Low P**P High T, High P T (K) Gay-Lussac’s Law • Worked on relationship between pressure and temperature • Volume (V ) and number of moles (n) are constant • P increases as T increases • This is why we don’t heat canned foods on a campfire without opening them! • Showed that gas pressure is directly proportional to absolute temperature**Combined Gas Law**• Ratio • Constant for fixed amount of gas (n) • for fixed amount of moles • OR can equate two sets of conditions to give combined gas law**Combined Gas Law**• All T 's must be in K • Value of P and V can be any units as long as they are the same on both sides • Only equation you really need to remember • Gives all relationships needed for fixed amount of gas under two sets of conditions**Used for calculating effects of changing conditions**T in Kelvin P and V any units, as long as units cancel Example: If a sample of air occupies 500. mL at 273.15 K and 1 atm, what is the volume at 85 °C and 560 torr? Combined Gas Law V2 =890. mL**Ex. Using Combined Gas Law**• What will be the final pressure of a sample of nitrogen gas with a volume of 950. m3 at 745 torr and 25.0 °C if it is heated to 60.0 °C and given a final volume of 1150 m3? • First, number of moles is constant even though actual number is not given • You are given V, P and T for initial state of system as well as T and V for final state of system and must find Pfinal • This is a clear case for combined gas law**Ex. Using Combined Gas Law**• List what you know and what you don’t know • Convert all temperatures to Kelvin • Then solve for unknown—here P2 P2 = 688 torr**Ex.Combined Gas Law**• Anesthetic gas is normally given to a patient when the room temperature is 20.0 °C and the patient's body temperature is 37.0 °C. What would this temperature change do to 1.60 L of gas if the pressure and mass stay the same? • What do we know? • P and n are constant • So combined gas law simplifies to**Ex.Combined Gas Law**• List what you know and what you don’t know • Convert all temperatures to Kelvin • Then solve for unknown—here V2 V2= 1.69 L**Your Turn!**Which units must be used in all gas law calculations? • K for temperature • atm for pressure • L for volume • no specific units as long as they cancel**Relationships between Gas Volumes**• In reactions in which products and reactants are gases: • If T and P are constant • Simple relationship among volumes hydrogen + chlorine hydrogen chloride 1 vol 1 vol 2 vol hydrogen + oxygen water (gas) 2 vol 1 vol 2 vol • Ratios of simple, whole numbers**Avogadro’s Principle**• When measured at same T and P, equal V's of gas contain equal number of moles • Volume of a gas is directly proportional to its number of moles, n • Vis proportional ton (at constant P and T )**Standard Molar Volume**• Volume of 1 mole gas must be identical for all gases under same P and T • Standard conditions of temperature and pressure — STP • STP = 1 atm and 273.15 K (0.0 °C) • Under these conditions • 1 mole gas occupies V = 22.4 L • 22.4 L standard molar volume**Learning Check:**Calculate the volume of ammonia formed by the reaction of 25 L of hydrogen with excess nitrogen. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)**Learning Check:**N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) If 125 L H2 react with 50 L N2, what volume of NH3 can be expected? H2 is limiting reagent 83.3 L**Learning Check:**How many liters of N2(g) at 1.00 atm and 25.0 °C are produced by the decomposition of 150. g of NaN3?2NaN3(s) 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)**Your Turn!**How many liters of SO3 will be produced when 25 L of sulfur dioxide reacts with 75 L of oxygen ? All gases are at STP. A. 25 L B. 50 L C. 100 L D. 150 L E. 75 L**Ideal Gas Law**• With Combined Gas Law we saw that • With Avogadro’s results we see that this is modified to • Where R = a new constant = Universal Gas constant**Ideal Gas Law**PV = nRT • Equation of state of a gas: • If we know three of these variables, then we can calculate the fourth • Can define state of the gas by defining three of these values Ideal Gas • Hypothetical gas that obeys ideal gas law relationship over all ranges of T, V, n and P • As T increases and P decreases, real gases act as ideal gases**What is the value of R?**• Plug in values of T, V, n and P for 1 mole of gas at STP (1 atm and 0.0 °C) • T = 0.0 °C = 273.15 K • P = 1 atm • V = 22.4 L • n = 1 mol R = 0.082057 L atm mol–1 K–1**Learning Check: PV = nRT**How many liters of N2(g) at 1.00 atm and 25.0 °C are produced by the decomposition of 150. g of NaN3?2NaN3(s) 2Na(s) + 3N2(g) V = ? V = nRT/P P = 1 atm T = 25C + 273.15 = 298.15 K n = 3.461 mol N2 V = 84.6 L**Ex. Ideal Gas Law Problem**• What volume in milliliters does a sample of nitrogen with a mass of 0.245 g occupy at 21 °C and 750 torr? • What do I know? • Mass and identity (with the MM) of substance – can find moles • Temperature • Pressure • What do I need to find? • Volume in mL**Ex. Ideal Gas Law Problem Solution**V = ? (mL) mass= 0.245 g MM = 2 14.0 = 28.0 g/mol • Convert temperature from °C to K T = 21°C + 273.15 K = 294 K • Convert pressure from torr to atm • Convert mass to moles**Ex. Ideal Gas Law Problem Solution**= 214 mL**Your Turn!**Dry ice is solid carbon dixoide. What is the pressure, in atm, of CO2 in a 50.0 L container at 35 °C when 33.0 g of dry ice becomes a gas? A. 0.043 atm B. 0.010 atm C. 0.38 atm D. 0.08 atm E. 38 atm**Determining Molecular Mass of Gas**If you know P, T, V and mass of gas • Use ideal gas law to determine moles (n) of gas • Then use mass and moles to get MM If you know T, P, and density(d) of a gas • Use density to calculate volume and mass of gas • Use ideal gas law to determine moles (n) of gas • Then use mass and moles to get MM