2003 Crime Analysis Dr. Wade Schindler Tulane University
Crime Analysis??? • What Is It? • Who Uses It? • What Information Does It Provide? • How Does It Impact Society? • What Specific Types Of Crime Analysis Are Being Studied?
General Definition • Crime Analysis is the logical examination of crimes that have penetrated preventative measures. • Crime Analysis also provides a proactive approach to security and law enforcement for the implementation of new crime prevention techniques.
Goals of Crime Analysis • To reduce crime on property. • To evaluate and aid in the selection of security and crime prevention measures. • To justify crime prevention expenditures. • To provide a system of monitoring the effectiveness of security and crime prevention measures. • To provide a continual evaluation system of the property’s crime situation. • To reduce the liability of property owners and their agents (property managers).
Crime Analysis &Circle Of Control/Influence • Crime Analysis helps differentiate between a property manager’s area of control (Circle Of Control) and the areas over which managers have influence (Influence Of Control). • Property Managers are those people who own or contractually manage property that is public or private. Circle Of Control Circle Of Influence
Descriptive Analysis of COC Using the building manager scenario as an example, our manager is responsible for the building’s operation, the common areas, and the parking garage, which constitute his Circle Of Control.
DescriptiveAnalysis of COI An example of an area within his Circle Of Influence is the property next door, a strip used daily by his tenants. The proximity of this strip center to his building, its use by his tenants, and his relationship with that center’s management place this facility within his Circle Of Influence. Though he is not responsible for this facility, it does affect his property’s security and vice-versa.
Legal Ramifications Involving Premises Security • A Premises Security lawsuit is a civil action brought on behalf of a person seeking damages for negligent security against the owners and their agents. • Generally, three elements must be met in order for the plaintiff to prevail. These elements are, duty, breach of duty, and proximate cause.
Crime AnalysisData Sources Statistics represent criminal activity in the form of numbers, comparable to an inventory, in which the Crime Analysis task is the reformation of that activity as a tangible tool for risk management.
Calls For Service (CFS) • The primary data set is Calls For Service (CFS), which serves as crime analysis’ basis and provides for the most accurate portrayal of criminal and other activity at a property. CFS consist of every report of crime, suspected crime, and activity called on to police from a property. • Research has concluded that unreported crime accounts for a 10% higher crime index, though this is highly dependent on the type of crime under observation. Despite the exclusion of unreported crime, CFS still provides conclusive illustrations of criminal activity on a property.
Types Of Data Reports • Offense Reports- Generated when police discover a crime independent from a call into the 911 system. • Uniform Crime Reports- The most exhaustive and geographically comprehensive crime statistics available in the United States. The FBI is responsible for the publication of the UCR. • National Crime Victimization Survey- Initiated by the United States Census Bureau and Law Enforcement Assistance Administration in 1972, include characteristics of crime victims, such as age, sex, ethnicity, and martial status.
Additional Data Reports • Demographic Data- Include statistical data in reference to population counts, socioeconomic levels, education levels, and personal traits of the population. • Security Reports- Include reports of criminal activity and other incidents (parking, loitering, security breaches). Management may generate these reports directly or through a contracted security service. • National Incident~Based Reporting System (NIBRS)- The future of Crime Analysis and a new measure of crime is found in the NIBRS.
Property Census Tract Reporting Area Beat/District Precinct City/County MSA State Nation Geographic Levels Of Analysis Is a hierarchy that denotes the levels of Geographic Analysis, ranging from the specific to the general. It is geared toward being as site~specific as possible displaying the importance and relationship between each level.
Geographic Levels Of Analysis~Hierarchy Pyramid • Property- Is the fundamental level of analysis that refers to a single address over which the manager has absolute control. • Census Tract- Geographic areas defined by the U.S. Census Bureau for population and geographic purposes. • Beat, District, or Precinct- Patrol Beats are common geographical zones that law enforcement allocate resources. Districts and Precinct’s are areas in which command centers are grouped.
Geographic Levels Of Analysis~Hierarchy Pyramid Continued • Crime Statistical Reporting Area- Statistical Reporting Area (RA) is a uncommon level of analysis. Generally, RA’s are small homogenous areas created for the sole purpose of supporting crime data collection. Uncommon because it creates inconsistency across jurisdictions. • City/County- Encompass crime information for the entire law enforcement jurisdiction. City and County data are on the middle ring of the Circle Of Influence. • Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)- Account for approximately 76% of the total U.S. Population. This is considered the outer of the Circle Of Influence. Created purely for Crime Statistical purposes.
Geographic Levels Of Analysis~Hierarchy Pyramid Continued • State- Similar to city and county data, state can be found in the UCR and include information for the entire state. Information is available through the State Police. • Nation- Crime Stats for the Nation are available through the UCR program, via actual crime information and estimations for the occasional jurisdiction that are not involved in the program.
Crime Statistics Today • Today’s statistics originate from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). • BJS conducts the annual National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). • FBI publishes data that is summarized in the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) and its incident-driven National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS).
The Uniform Crime Reporting Program Started by the FBI in 1929 in response to a national initiative undertaken by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). The objective was to develop a set of consistent crime statistics for policymakers and police agencies to use throughout the country.
The Structure of UCR • Initial data was structured in terms of seven major offense categories: Murder, Rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault, Burglary, Larceny, and Motor Vehicle Theft. • These crimes are called, Part 1 Offenses. When averaged together and compared with the country’s population, it forms the FBI’s Crime Index.
The FBI’s “Crime Clock” • Part 1 Offenses, showing the number of crimes reported in 1999 and 1995. • The Crime Clock subdivides Part 1 Offenses into two categories: Violent Crime and Property Crime.
Problems with the UCR • The most significant methodological feature of the UCR is indicated by its name. It is a reporting program. In other words, only crimes that are reported to police are included in these statistics. • The most underreported crime is larceny, because petty theft may never make it into official police reports.
Total Crimes Known to the Police (1996) Murder 15,533 Rape 89,107 Robbery 409,670 Aggravated Assault 916,383 MVT 1,147,305 Burglary 2,099,739 Theft 6,957,412 Total 11,635,149 Source: UCR (1996)
NIBRS: The New UCR • Recently, the UCR received an overhaul funded by the Criminal Identification Technology Act of 1998. The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), a new statistical system, was derived from the UCR. • The NIBRS was designed to gather detailed data on weapons, injuries received, crime locations, victims, offenders, sex, age, race, and much more.
NIBRS CONTINUED • The NIBRS has 22 crime categories in which make up 46 specific crimes called “Group A Offenses.” In addition, there are 11 “Group B Offenses.” Group B Offenses only offer data pertaining to reported arrest data. • The goal of the NIBRS is to make data reporting and data retrieval easy and readily available.
NIBRS Offenses • Group A Offenses are those for which extensive crime data are collected under NIBRS • Group B Offenses are those for which only arrest data are reported under NIBRS
NIBRS Group A Offenses • Arson • Assault Offenses, including aggravated assault, simple assault, and intimidation • Bribery • Burglary / Breaking and Entering • Counterfeiting / Forgery • Destruction / Damage / Vandalism of property • Drug / Narcotic Offenses including Drug Paraphernalia • Embezzlement
Group A Offenses Continued • Extortion / Blackmail • Fraud Offenses, including False Pretenses / Swindles / Credit Card / Wire Fraud • Gambling Offenses, including Sports Tampering / Equipment Violations / Betting and Wagering • Homicide Offenses, including Murder and Non-negligent Manslaughter / Negligent Manslaughter / Justifiable Homicide • Kidnapping and Abduction
Group A Offenses Continued • Larceny and Theft Offenses, including pocket picking / Shoplifting / Theft from coin machines / Theft from a motor vehicle • Motor Vehicle Theft • Pornography • Prostitution • Robbery
Group A Offenses Continued • Forcible Sex Offenses, including Forcible Rape / Forcible Sodomy / Sexual Assault • Non-forcible Sex Offenses, including Incest / Statutory Rape • Stolen Property • Weapon law violations
NIBRS Group B Offenses • Bad checks • Curfew / Loitering • Disorderly conduct • DUI • Drunkenness • Non-violent family offenses • Liquor la violations • Peeping Tom • Runaway • Trespass of real property • All other offenses
Problems With The NIBRS • The transition process is not moving as quickly as planned. Scheduled to be fully in place by 1999. • It is not being widely accepted by local law enforcement due to limited manpower in managing the transition process. • The NIBRS offers much more than past statistical programs. However, it cannot be fully critiqued until it is fully implemented.
National Crime Victimization Survey • NCVS consists of information elicited through interviews with members of randomly selected households throughout the nation. • NCVS data is gathered by the U.S. Census Bureau personnel who survey approximately 49,000 households consisting of about 101,000 people. • The NCVS uncovers a large number of crimes that may not have been reported, therefore regarded by researchers as a more accurate measure of incidence crime.
Problems With The NCVS • The NCVS can be criticized for possible over-reporting. No attempt is made to verify the actual occurrence of any of the crimes reported to NCVS interviewers. • Individuals being interviewed sometimes embellish crime reports to gain attention and/or sympathy.
NCVS vs. UCR • The collection of NCVS data began in 1972. It is newer than the FBI’s UCR established in 1929. • Recent changes have resulted in the inability to easily compare NCVS findings with past findings. The UCR offers a more consistent system in comparing data due to more agencies being involved. • The NCVS is based on interviews per household. The UCR is based on factual cases.