Its Phases and Overview Software Development Process
Introduction • This document describes the (SDLC) for small to medium database application development efforts. • This chapter presents an overview of the SDLC, alternate lifecycle models, and associated references. • The following project describes the internal processes that are common across all stages of the SDLC, and the third chapter describes the inputs, outputs, and processes of each stage.
Cont: There are six stages in SDLC: Analysis Planning Design Coding Testing Implementation & maintenance SDLC uses four main approaches viz.
cont Waterfall Approach Spiral Approach Incremental Approach Win Win Spiral Approach
Meaning And Methodologies CONCEPT OF SDLC
Contemplative Questions What are the various approaches to developing Information Systems? Is there one best way? What is the difference between techniques, methodologies and tools? What does the popular term “SDLC” actually mean?
SDLC • SDLC stands for • Systems • Development • Life • Cycle • What does it mean? • Why do we need it?
What is SDLC? • SDLC stands for • Systems Development Life Cycle • First, SDLC is a Life Cycle. • All systems have a life cycle or a series of stages they naturally undergo. • The number and name of the stages varies, but the primary stages are conception, development, maturity and decline. • The systems development life cycle (SDLC) therefore, refers to the development stage of the system’s life cycle
Approaches to Systems Development • Process-Oriented Approach • Focus is on flow, use and transformation of data in an information system • Involves creating graphical representations such as data flow diagrams and charts • Data are tracked from sources, through intermediate steps and to final destinations • Natural structure of data is not specified • Disadvantage: data files are tied to specific applications
Cont Which is better, the Process Approach or the Data Approach • Process Approach: “Let’s look at all of our processes. Processes take precedence over data. Get the processes correct first. Then we’ll address what data is important.” • Data Approach : • “Forget the processes, let’s look at the data. Data comes first. Get the data correct, then see how the processes actually use the data
Its Phases and Overview Milestone In SDLC
Milestones Following are the milestones in SDLC – Requirement Gathering In this, customer needs are analysed in order to get a clear picture of the user requirements. If it is an existing system, requirements include improvement on the backlogs of the existing system. This is done by interviewing users and consultants of the the company (client).
Cont: Functional Specification It mentions, what functions is the product supposed to have i.e how the interface should be, what should the product do, how will the user use the product.
High Level Design (HLD) In this stage, logical view of the solution to customer requirements is arrived at. It helps in deciding operating systems, hardware, database design, architecture, security issues etc.
Low Level Design (LLD) In this phase, HLD is broken down into smaller modules/programs. LLD is used by developers.
Type of approaches and definition Approaches in sdlc
Software development methodology approaches • There are a number of software development approaches that have been used since the origin of information • Technology. These software development approaches are: • 1.Waterfall Approach : linear framework type. • 2.Prototyping Approach : iterative framework type • 3.Rapid Application Development (RAD) Approach: Iterative Framework Type • 4.Spiral Approach : combination of linear and iterative framework type
Waterfall Approach • The Waterfall model is a sequential development approach, in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of requirements analysis, design, implementation, testing (validation), integration, and maintenance. • Basic principles of the waterfall approach are: • Project is divided into sequential phases, with some overlap and splashback acceptable between phases. • Emphasis is on planning, time schedules, target dates, budgets and implementation of an entire system
Prototyping Approach • Software prototyping, is the development approach of activities during software development the creation of prototypes, i.e., incomplete versions of the software program being developed. • Basic principles of the Prototyping Approach are: • Attempts to reduce inherent project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process. • A basic understanding of the fundamental business problem is necessary to avoid solving the wrong problem.
Spiral Approach The spiral model. The spiral model approach is a software development process combining elements of both design and prototyping-in-stages, in an effort to combine advantages of top-down aweigh consideration of project continuation throughout the life cycle. Focus is on risk assessment and on minimizing project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process, as well as providing the opportunity to evaluate risks
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Approach • Rapid Application Development(RAD) is a software development methodology approach, which involves iterative development and the construction of prototypes. Rapid application development is a term originally used to describe a software development process introduced by James Martin in 1991. Standard systems analysis and design techniques can be fitted into this framework. • Basic principles: • Key objective is for fast development and delivery of a high quality system at a relatively low investment cost. • Standard systems analysis and design techniques can be fitted into this framework.
Types Of Phases Phases In SDLC
Analysis Analysis is first phase in SDLC wherein the possible outcome of the software are discussed in detail. Analysis is similar to a patient visiting a doctor.Doctors always analyse their patient:observing,testing,questioning.
Analysis Phase • Identify problem • Feasibility study for new system • Investigate current system • Organisational & system goals • Problems / limitations identified • Possible solutions • Evaluate all data collected • Decision to continue
Coding • Coding During this phase, source code, executables are produced to develop the final product.
Design Phase • Hardware / Software to be used • Suppliers selection • Program specifications • Screen design • User interface • Inputs • Outputs • Setting up Tests to be performed • General Specifications for user documentation
Development • Program Development Life Cycle (PDLC) ( to be used with customised software ) • Testing
Development Stages of the PDLC: • Analyse • Design • Code • Debug • Test • Document • Implement • Evaluate
Development Within he development phase there are various program development methodologies: • RAD: Rapid Application Development • Prototyping • Waterfall model (traditional staged development) • Agile model (Short bursts developing functional units of the project)
Implementation Phase • Hardware purchase & set up • System conversion • Testing • Handover of system and documentation
Evaluation Phase • Determine suitable time • Original aims & objectives • Design specifications • Other factors eg: efficiency, effectiveness etc..
Overview of Analysis Analysis Phase
What is Analysis? Analysis is the first phase in SDLC where the Software is Discussed Much before it is implemented.
Question that need to be asked? • Is there really a problem? • If there is a problem, is it worth fixing? • Like: Technical feasibility Economic feasibility Legal feasibility Operational feasibility Schedule feasibility
Analysis does not try to describe HOW the solution will work. A problem analysis will describe: required input (what data has to be acquired to produce the output?) required output (i.e. what information is the system supposed to produce?) Data and information should be described in detail.
Basic Requirement In SDLC SDLC REQUIREMENT
Scope • Technical Activities • Management Activities • Installation Guidance SDLC REQUIREMENT
-New Development • - Rewrites of Existing Systems • - Maintenance • - Package Selection • - System Conversions Scope Requirements
-System Definition (Analysis, Design, Coding) • -Testing • - System Installation (e.g., Data Conversion, Training) • - Production Support (e.g., Problem Management) • - Evaluating Alternatives • - Defining Releases • - Reconciling Information Across Multiple Phases • - Reconciling To A Global View • - Defining The Project's Technical Strategy. Technical Activities
- Setting Priorities • - Defining Objectives • - Planning And Estimating • - Tracking/Status Reporting • - Change Control • - Step Wise Commitment • - Cost/Benefit Analysis • - Risk Assessments • - Interacting With Users • - Managing Vendors • - Post Implementation Reviews • - Quality Assurance Reviews Management Activities
Large and complex system containing many tasks, tools and techniques. • That process requires training, guidance and a phased installation. Installation Support Requirements
How to Design a software Designing phase
To transform the data model (developed in the analysis phase) into logical and physical information structure Purpose of designing
The GUI standards and guidelines are based on the requirements for the user interface identified in the analysis phase. Standards are needed to ensure: consistency of the GUI of different parts of the application or system usability of the application (e.g. reducing error in using the application) maintainability Design user interface standards and guidelines
The technical architecture used by the application is described by presenting the various hardware, software and networking components, and their interfaces. Design system architecture
The design of functionality in Web applications include e.g. navigation (functionality of control buttons) control of windows (moving between frames, opening and closing of pop-up windows) data input (HTML forms, cgi data transfers) data processing output (dynamically created HTML pages) Design software components
The structure imposed by this SDLC is specifically designed to maximize the probability of a successful software development effort. Conclusion