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The Gathering Storm: OSs and VMMs meet Many-Core

The Gathering Storm: OSs and VMMs meet Many-Core

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The Gathering Storm: OSs and VMMs meet Many-Core

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  1. The Gathering Storm:OSs and VMMs meet Many-Core Mike Swift University of Wisconsin-Madison

  2. What will change? • Lots of execution contexts • Some extra, but not many • High application demand for parallelism • Low-overhead communication and synchronization • Heterogeneous processors • Statically and dynamically • Closely-coupled systems • Shared caches, buses

  3. Challenges • Single thread performance has flattened • OS overhead matters more • Must reduce single-thread overhead • Must perform more work asynchronously

  4. Opportunities • Hardware support for synchronization and fast communication • Fine-grained parallelism within the kernel • Transactional memory to simplify kernel coding

  5. Opportunities • Extra hardware threads for background tasks • Monitoring • Optimization • Redundant execution

  6. Challenges • Scheduling matters again • We have to read all those gang scheduling papers • OS must to manage diverse resources • Set of resources may change • Threads may interfere • Application demand may change

  7. Challenges • Dynamic hardware • OS or VMMs must tolerate CPU addition, removal, change in properties

  8. Challenges • Scalability • Existing SMP, ccNUMA techniques difficult to apply, reduce single-thread performance • Partitioning approaches limit resources to applications

  9. Opportunities • Possible new OS structures for scalability • Adopt supercomputer approach with OS nodes, compute nodes • Multiple quasi-independent kernels • Independent kernels with DSM for large applications

  10. Are we up to it?

  11. Challenges • Interference • OS must account for interference between threads • Hardware must provide measurements of interference