Download
pax britannica and colonialism n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Pax Britannica and Colonialism PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Pax Britannica and Colonialism

Pax Britannica and Colonialism

379 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Pax Britannica and Colonialism

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Pax Britannica and Colonialism

  2. References • Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 192-208 • Ropp, War in the Modern World, pp. 206-214 • Weigley, The American Way of War, pp. 167-191 • Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History, pp. 820-855

  3. Learning Objectives • Comprehend the meaning of Pax Britannica and how the British fleet provided the deterrence to renewed total war • Know and discuss the weaknesses of the British Army as demonstrated in the Crimean War • Comprehend and explain the reasons for the revival of the race for empires and the necessary military requirements • Comprehend and explain how the Boer War put 19th Century British imperialism to its most severe test

  4. Europe circa 1815

  5. Pax Britannica and the Race for Empires • Pax Britannica • 1815: The Congress of Vienna removes colonies • 1880: Control of major sea lines • Britain gains industrialization head start • Britain is free to use its fleet • Britain controls the seas through naval supremacy • The Crimean War • Red Cross

  6. Pax Britannica andthe Race for Empires • The Industrial Revolution • European powers compete • Desires for colonies grew • 1914: Africa partitioned • “Spheres of Influence” • Advancing equipment made British ships obsolete • Capital necessary to upgrade was enormous

  7. Pax Britannica andthe Race for Empires • Technological Imperative • Modernization needed to stay competitive • Lesser nations’ role • Numbers no longer decide victory in combat • Economic competition • End result • Frenchman Jeune Ecole • Italian battleships Duilio and Dandalo • Submarines used as tools of war

  8. Pax Britannica and the Race for Empires • Capt A.T. Mahan • The Influence of Sea Power upon History • Sea power as a political and economic force • Mahan’s philosophies • Germans built a “risk fleet” • Britain aspires to maintain its supremacy • 1907: Dreadnought built

  9. Pax Britannica and the Race for Empires • The Boer War • Technology and anti-imperialist sentiment’s impact • Britain commits 500,000 troops • Boer tactics • Inadequacies of British tactics • The British success at Boer

  10. Pax Britannica andthe Race of Empires • The Modern Era • British lessen military burden • Britain’s superiority steadily erodes • 1907: End of Pax Britannica

  11. The Prussian Influence Franco-Prussian War Portrait

  12. Learning Objectives • Comprehend and explain the struggle for dominance between Prussian and Austrian forces • Comprehend and explain the emergence of the German General Staff under Moltke • Comprehend and explain the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War • Compare and contrast Moltke and Bismarck as grand strategists

  13. The Struggle for Dominance • The Napoleonic Destruction – power void • 1815-1866: Austria and Prussia struggle • Prussian Zollerein gains control • 1850: Treaty of Olmuetz • 1864: Schleswig-Holstein War • Prussia & Austria defeat Denmark • Joint control of land disputed while under joint control of Prussia & Austria • Austria defeated

  14. Prussian Preeminence • 1867: Northern Germany joins Prussia • Fear of France forces Southern alliance • 1870: Franco-Prussian War • Detailed mobilization plans and flexibility of Prussia • Moltke and General Staff key • Superior Prussian artillery • Lack of planning of French • Lack of French economy of force

  15. General Staff of Prussia • Originates after Napoleonic Period • Quasi-autonomy • Attention to doctrine and theory • Rotation of officers • Separate “planning and education” branch

  16. Moltke & Bismarck • Otto von Bismarck’s accomplishments • Limited aims of three wars of unification • Diplomacy after unification • 1857: Count Helmuth von Moltke – Chief of General Staff • Attained by intellectual achievement • Lacked Bismarck’s strategic abilities • Establishes Railway Section • Leads to lightning fast mobilization of forces

  17. Summary • Pax Britannica • Industrial Revolution • Boer War and end of British supremacy • Prussian Influences • Unification of Germany

  18. Questions?