Motivation • The forces that act on or within an organism to initiate and direct behavior • A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Motivation • Activation – initiation or production behavior • Persistence – continued effort to get something • Intensity – greater vigor of responding
Theories • Theories have proved weak over time, but we take a little from each and evolved
Instinct Theories • Motivation is innate and due to genetic programming • Instincts are rigidly patterned throughout a species and is inborn instincts
Instinct Theories • Animals display instinctive behavior patterns such as migration and mating behavior • IE. Salmon returning to their birth place, birds migrating south for the winter
Instinct • A complex, inherited, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species • William James listed 37 instincts. • Difficulty using instincts to both label and explain behaviors
Instinct Motivation • Examples of Instincts • Rivalry Submission • Sympathy Modesty • Fear Secretiveness • Shyness Repulsion • Cleanliness Jealousy • Food-Seeking Curiosity • Sociability Combativeness • Parental Love Hunting • Mating Constructiveness
Why Why does Jimmy get into a lot of fights?
Why do people do the things that they do?(Instinct Theory) • Why does Jimmy get into a lot of fights? Combativeness Instinct • Why is Sally so quiet and timid? Shyness Instinct • Dave is overweight and can’t stop eating because of his food-seeking instinct. • Jane beats and neglects her children because she wasn’t born with a parental love instinct.
By 1920’s and 1930’s theory is out, but the idea that some human behaviors are innate and genetically programmed remained an important element in the overall understanding of motivation
Drives • Aroused tension states created by imbalances • Prompt an organism to restore the balance, typically reducing the drive • Part of drive-reduction theory
DRIVE – REDUCTION THEORY • Behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs • A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need • Eating and drinking are examples of drive-reducing behaviors.
Drive-Reduction Motivation • Homeostasis = The body monitors and maintains relatively constant levels of internal states, such as body temperature, fluid levels, and energy supplies • If any of these levels deviates very far from the optimal level, the body initiates processes (motivation) to bring the condition back to normal
Why do people do the things that they do?(Drive-Reduction Theory) • Why did Shawn steal that candy bar? To satisfy his hunger and to maintain homeostasis. His body told him that he needed it. • Carrie always wears long sleeve shirts, even in the summer. She must have an internal thermostat that drops very easily, and in order to maintain a certain internal body temperature, she always has to wear an extra layer of clothing.
Homeostasis • A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state • The regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level • Any change in levels, up or down, results in being motivated to bring the level back to normal.
Drive theories inadequate due to the fact many people strive to increase tension and physiological arousal • I.e. running a marathon
Cognitive Explanations: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Module 11: Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation • A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
Extrinsic Motivation • A desire to perform a behavior because of promised rewards or threats of punishment
Motivation • Incentive Theory – Extrinsic Motivation • Behavior is motivated solely by the pull of external rewards (reinforcement principal)
Why do people do the things that they do?(Incentive Theory) • Kevin committed murder because he was paid to do so. • Jane swims everyday, before and after school, on weekends, etc. so that she can win an Olympic Gold medal. • Steve is considered a geek because he does all of his homework so that he can get all “A’s”. If he does, he can have a television in his bedroom.
Intrinsic Motivation • Intrinsic motivation is when you are motivated by internal factors, as opposed to the external drivers of extrinsic motivation. • Intrinsic motivation drives you to do things just for the fun of it, or because I believe it is a good or right thing to do.
Why does Greg work at the homeless shelter on weekends, instead of playing baseball?
Why did Jessica serve on jury duty, even though she missed several days of work and an exam?
Why do people do the things that they do?(Intrinsic Motivation) • Cassie became a nun because she felt that it was morally the right thing to do. • Greg works at the homeless shelter because it makes him feel good to help other people in need. • Karen practices her swing because she enjoys softball, and so that she can become a better softball player. • Jessica was a jurier in the murder trial because putting away criminals is the right thing to do.