Classroom Management Logan Mack, Angela Koski, Lisa Lavoie
KellyHayden’s Classroom Management Strategy’s Tips and Tricks • Keep the lesson and the students moving. ~3 activities in a 45 minute period and try to have the students up and moving during at least one of these. • Don’t lecture for the whole period. Hands-on works better. • Talk to your students. Show you care. • When students are disruptive stand near them. This will often discourage the behavior. • If you have done all of the above and students are still a problem ask “Are you okay?” They may be dealing with other issues. (Hayden 2008)
Classroom Management Components • Preventive Planning Techniques • Routines, Procedures, Policies • Effective Lesson Plans • Inquiry Based Learning • The Socratic Method • Communication • Addressing Student Behaviors
Routines, Policies and Procedures: What? • How things get done in your class. • Checklist of Routines, Policies and Procedures
Routines, Policies and Procedures How? • Imposed by School administration • Created by Teacher • Created by Teacher with student input • Created via democratic process
Routines, Policies and Procedures: When? • Many decisions about routines, policies and procedures should be made before students enter the classroom. • If you decide to enlist your class in helping to make some of the decisions this should be done on the first or second day. • You should review established routines, policies and procedures to make sure they are fulfilling their intended function as your class progresses, but revisions should be rare as they can lead to confusion.
Routines, Policies and Procedures Why? • Your classroom will run more smoothly if students know what is expected of them and what to expect. • You will save time because you don’t have to establish or explain how you want things done every time they need to be done.
Effective Lesson Plans • Keep students, busy and engaged while learning • Teach to different learning styles • Offer authentic learning that support learning standards • Require knowledge of how to motivate students
Effective Lesson Plans Motivate students with instruction that is: • Authentic • Hands-on • Inquiry Based • Student Empowering
Inquiry Based Learning Image from: http://goconstructivism.blogspot.com/ Inquiry Based Instruction Info Link: http://www.youthlearn.org/learning/activities/howto.asp
Socratic Method “Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel”-Socrates
Socratic Method Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Repeat Steps 3 and 4 Link to Socratic Method Info: http://www.socraticmethod.net/
Communication • Use fewer words-lecture less • Use your words wisely • Explain thoroughly • Ask if there are any questions • Use a moderate tone of voice
Addressing Student Behaviors • Determine what the student is trying to get with a behavior • Asking “What” or “How” when addressing a student’s behavior is less confrontational than asking “Why” • Ask students to help you with a task • Catch students doing the right thing and offer sincere praise (Positive Reinforcement) • Give students the benefit of the doubt • Listen • Care • Discipline should be a last resort
Reality therapy • Involves teachers helping students make positive choices • Makes clear the connection between student behavior and consequences • Class meetings, clearly communicated rules, and the use of plans and contracts are featured
Choice theory • The belief that we are internally, not externally motivated • Behavior is central to our existence and is driven by five genetically driven needs • We always have some choice about how to behave • People have essentials needs and if these needs are not met on a daily basis, people begin to feel out-of-sync • The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory
Positive approach • Based on Glasser's Reality Therapy • Grounded in teachers' respect for students and instilling in them a sense of responsibility • Program components include developing and sharing clear rules, providing daily opportunities for success
Assertive discipline • Structured, systematic approach designed to assist educators in running an organized, teacher-in-charge classroom environment • Focuses on the right of the teacher to define and enforce standards for student behavior • Clear expectations, rules, and a penalty system with increasingly serious sanctions are major features
Effectiveness training • Differentiates between teacher-owned and student-owned problems and proposes different strategies for dealing with each • Students are taught problem-solving and negotiation techniques • Teaches teachers conflict resolution skills so they can create better relationships with their students and less confrontation will take place
Dreikurs Model or Cooperative discipline • Rudolf Dreikurs main focus is on establishing a classroom which is democratic in nature and gives students a sense of belonging • Students have some voice as to the functions of the classroom • Mutual trust between the teacher is created in various ways, including common group discussions about class concerns
Dreikurs Model or Cooperative discipline (Cont.) • Dreikurs maintains that "discipline makes no use of punishment." • Students have different levels of misbehavior • Promotes self-esteem • Four types of misbehavior -Attention -Revenge -Power -Avoidance of failure
Multicultural Classroom Management
Let’s Start with Multicultural Education • Multicultural education as defined by experts in the field, multicultural education can be simply defined as an educational movement that strives to promote pluralism and to minimize racism in the classroom. • “Comprehensive school reform and basic education for all students that challenges all forms of discrimination, permeates instruction and interpersonal relations in the classroom, and advances the democratic principles of social justice.” (Nieto, 1992)
Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of Multicultural Classroom Management • Since mainly white college professors are responsible for teaching predominately white teacher candidates, attitudes and dispositions of the dominant culture are transmitted into the multicultural classroom making learning difficult for many students. • “These deep rooted old patterns are played out in the school environment, where teachers wither consciously or unconsciously function to maintain the status-quo by imposing their values and standards on subordinate groups of students from diverse backgrounds.” (Au, 1993) • F.Y.I. White college professors make up 88% of the 35,000 fulltime, regular, instructional faculty in the field of education. Their white pre-service teacher students will make up 86% of the teacher population in diverse public schools. (Ladson-Billings, 1994)
Discipline • “Discipline can be described as what teachers do in the classroom to prevent or curb inappropriate behavior, but teachers’ interpretations may differ as to what constitutes misbehavior in the first place.” (Irwin & Nucci, 2004) • http://www.videojug.com/expertanswer/multicultural-manners-in-school-2/how-does-discipline-in-schools-differ-among-cultures
Teacher Strategies & Leadership Styles • “According to Hoover and Kindsvatter (1997), when teachers understand the unique circumstances of students’ behavior, the teachers’ interpretation of a given misbehavior may vary from one situation to another.” (Irwin & Nucci, 2004) • It is not appropriate for a teacher to employ the same management strategy or discipline type for different students under similar circumstances. Students’ behavior may have the same disrupting effect on the class climate but addressing their individual emotional needs and reasons for behavior is essential in determining appropriate intervention.
Examples of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication ContrastsAmong Some African Americans and Some Anglo Americans
Classroom Management Scenarios Nicole was a European American woman in her first year of teaching. Nicole’s first teaching assignment contrasted dramatically with her background and preparatory experiences. She found herself in an urban school district, in a school with a majority African American, inner city population. One day, after beginning her teaching duties, Nicole observed outside her classroom two African American male adolescents engaging in verbal banter that appeared aggressive and contentious. How should Nicole handle this situation?
References Bell, R..(2009). Punishment or positive reinforcement: Which one works?. Retrieved March 12, 2009 from: http://www.theapple.com/benefits/articles/7377-punishment-or-positive-reinforcement-which-one-works?page=1. Churchward, B.. (2009). Techniques that backfire. Retrieved March 7, 2009 from: http://www.honorlevel.com/x46.xml. Gose, M.. (2009). When Socratic dialogue is flagging: Questions and strategies for engaging students. College Teaching. 57(1), 45-49. Hayden, K.. (2008). Top five classroom management strategies – they really work. Retrieved February 9, 2009 from: http://www.brighthub.com/education/k-12/articles/3318.aspx. Hensley, P.. (2009). Catch students doing the right thing. Retrieved March 12,2009 from: http://www.theapple.com/benefits/articles/7959-catch-students-doing-the-right-thing?referral=ta_nlet_20090310usr. Joel. (2009). 7 questions that will save your teaching career. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from: http://www.theapple.com/benefits/articles/7849-7-questions-that-will-save-your-teaching-career. Rodriguez, L.. (2009). Classroom management. Retrieved February 9, 2009 from: http://www.4faculty.org/includes/108r2.jsp Smith, C..(2001). School discipline and classroom management: A must for improved instruction. . [Electronic Version] Delta Phi Kappan. April/May/June 2001. Retrieved February 9, 2009 from: http://waldenpdk.org/newsletters/Smith_SchoolDiscipline.html