Taking notes • It is essential that you take notes on these slides. All of this information will be included on the Unit Test. • You can find this Power Point online at Mrs. Leach’s school webpage.
Renaissance is a French word referring to “rebirth.”
Key characteristics of the Renaissance • 1. People expanded their mind by reading classical Greek and Roman text. • 2. Humanism spread with a focus on the “here and now” as well as “eternity.” • 3. The creation of the printing press • 4. The growing Merchant class • 5. Spread of scholarly Latin
This picture represents a typical scene during the Renaissance. Within it are many stereotypical “types” of people. People of the Renaissance didn’t know they were living in the Renaissance. It was only labeled this much later by Historians. How will people label us in the next 100 years? Will we be called the Computer-Age? Space Age?
Crash Course in the Renaissance • Video 11:52
Where did it begin? • Italy • Italian Cities • Urban Societies • Major Trading Centers • With the influx of money from trade and new found lands in the Americas, the Italians had the money and the opportunity to focus on the arts.
British Monarchs of the Period In order of historical appearance: • The last of the Plantagenet Dynasty • House of Lancaster • House of York • House of Tudor
Edward III (1312-1377)PlantagenetThe name Plantagenet was originally spelt PlanteGenest. It originated as a nickname for Count Geoffrey of Anjou, father of King Henry II who ascended the English throne in 1154. This name has traditionally been taken to mean a ‘sprig of broom’. It seems that there was an earlier tradition for such symbolism. It was kept as a sort-of-last-name for generations of royalty.
Henry VIII (1491-1547):A Tudor and his wives Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour VIDEO Anne Hathaway Catherine Howard Catherine Parr
King v. Pope Henry VIII wanted to get rid of his wife of 24 years and divorce was not allowed, especially for kings. Henry needed a way out!! He asked the Pope to annul his marriage. In 1533, the Pope refused. In an angry fit, Henry declared himself head of the English Church. He then appointed a new, more easily swayed, Archbishop who declared his marriage invalid. VIDEO King Henry VIII would ultimately have six wives: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne Hathaway, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr. The fates of these women were summarized in a popular jingle of the time: Divorced, beheaded, died Divorced, beheaded, survived
Who will lead? Once King Henry VIII died. The matter of who would lead became of grave importance. He was survived by three legitimate children: Mary (daughter of Catherine of Aragon), Elizabeth (daughter of Anne Boleyn), and Edward (son of Jane Seymour). At age 10, Edward was crowned as king. He ruled for 6 years and at age 16 died of Tuberculosis. Mary, his half-sister, was a devout Catholic who murdered many people in the name of pursuing the old Catholic ways. Her executions earned her the name BLOODY MARY. She died of fever. Elizabeth I, was one of the most brilliant and successful monarchs in history. She restored order and reestablished the Church of England, like her father. She resisted marriage and became known as the “Virgin Queen” her whole life.
The Spanish Armada • King Philip of Spain used “Bloody Mary’s” death as an excuse to invade England. He assembled THE SPANISH ARMADA (a fleet of ships) with the sole purpose to destroy England. • Thankfully, horrible weather in the Irish Sea destroyed the Armada. If they had prevailed, all of North America would be speaking Spanish today.
YOUR ASSIGNMENT:To Create a Timeline of Renaissance Rule 1. Draw a timeline on paper 2. Start with Edward III and end with Elizabeth the I. 3. Include all important rulers from 1300-1603. 4. Mention each royal family name. 5. Include key information. You have 10 minutes to complete this. Turn this in as a daily grade and then we will go over as a class.
The REFORMATION: Breaking with the Church Not only did Henry the VIII have a problem with the church, but so did many others. The rejection of the authority of the pope and the Italian churchmen was the most common feature indicating a Reformation in many countries across Europe. As we learned from Geoffrey Chaucer in The Canterbury Tales, conflicts with trusting the papacy were common place amongst all social classes. By 1530, an open break occurred. For England, this was because of: Strong feelings of patriotism and national identity made the people angered at all the taxes paid to the Roman church. 2. New ideas emerged: Martin Luther, a monk, had new ideas for Christianity that were based on a personal relationship with Christ, with no need for papacy to intercede. VIDEO 3. Humanists considered some old Christian ways superstitious /pagan and not based on The Bible.
Preaching at St. Paul’s Cathedral c. 1616 Oil painting
Refreshed by the classics, the new writers and artists were part of an intellectual movement called “humanism.” • They used old Latin and Greek text to ask: “What is a human being?” “What is a good life?” “How do I lead a good life?” • They still viewed The Bible as true, but also thought it could be backed by other literature—harmonizing the wisdom of many sources. • Next, we will discover the most famous Humanist writers, speakers, and artists.
Erasmus Real name: Desiderius Erasmus Hailed from: the Netherlands (Dutch) Believed in: Humanism/ Christianity Lived for: a push for a vernacular (readable) form of the Bible Quoted:“I disagree very much with those who are unwilling that Holy Scripture, translated into the vernacular, be read by the uneducated . . . As if the strength of the Christian religion consisted in the ignorance of it” Wrote the book: The Praise of Folly Which used humor to show the immoral and ignorant behavior of people, including the clergy.
Sir Thomas More Hailed from: England Believed in: Humanism Lived for: human harmony Wrote: UtopiaA book about a perfect society Life motto: Believed men and women should live in harmony, where there is no private property, no one is lazy, all people are educated and the justice system is used to end crime instead of executing criminals. THIS FICTIONAL WORLD WOULD HENCE BE A UTOPIA!!!
Petrarch Real name: Francesco Petrarch 1304-1374 Hailed from: Italy Job: Sonnet writer Believed in: Humanism Lived for: Assembling Greek and Roman writings. Wrote: Sonnets to Laura, love poems in the Vernacular
A Flood of Literature With their own religious and national identity firmly established, the English started writing as never before. Queen Elizabeth I became a beloved symbol of peace, security , and prosperity that often inspired scores of English writers to write about her. They represented her mythologically in poetry, drama, and fiction. Her favorite? Being read to.
An Aging Beauty. . . Elizabeth had a hard time with aging. In her youth, many men were often drawn to her and wrote about her fair skin and fiery hair. Andre Hurault, a French ambassador wrote in 1597 about her changing beauty, “As for her face, it is and appears to be very aged. It is long and thin and her teeth are very yellow and unequal, compared with what they were formerly [ . . .] many of them missing so that one cannot understand her when she speaks quickly.”
THE PRINTING PRESS Literature flourished during the Renaissance This can be greatly attributed to Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of the printing press. In 1455 Gutenberg printed the first book produced by using moveable type. William Caxton was also an important name, printing 100 different titles. VIDEO 14:21 The Bible
The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature. Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular. Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation Renaissance art and literature focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity.
Renaissance Artists embraced some of the ideals of Greece and Rome in their art. They wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion. • New Techniques also emerged • Frescos: Painting done on wet plaster became popular because it gave depth to the paintings • Sculpture emphasized realism and the human form • Architecture reached new heights of design
Familiar? The Ninja Turtles were named after Renaissance artists! Leonardo Raphael Donatello Michelangelo
1452-1519 Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engineer Genius!
Donato “Donatello” di Niccolò di Betto Bardi 1386-1466 Sculptor
Bust of Niccolo da Uzzano by Donatello. Cast from original in Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, Italy
"Magdalene Penitent" (c. 1455) — Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence
Born in 1475 in a small town near Florence, is considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived
David Michelangelo created his masterpiece David in 1504.