Welcome and Overview of AgendaLiz Wolfe, AdministratorEducational Support Services
AGENDA 8:30 Welcome and Overview of Agenda 8:40 Introduction to New ELD Standards 9:15 Rigorous and Well-Scaffolded Instruction for English Learners in the New Common Standards Era 10:00 BREAK 10:15 Rigorous and Well-Scaffolded Instruction for English Learners in the New Common Standards Era, Continued… 11:00 Announcements 11: 05 FAME (Faculty Academy For Mathematics Excellence) 11:30 Adjourn
California English Language Development Standards OverviewDenise Giacomini, CoordinatorEnglish Learner Programs
Presentation Objectives • Provide update on CA English Language Development (ELD) standards revision process • Describe key shifts in the CA ELD standards made to ensure full alignment to Common Core State Standards • Explain Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLDs) • Describe structure of ELD standards • Highlight implementation plan timeline
Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLDs) • Provide three proficiencylevels: • Emerging, Expanding, and Bridging – at early and exit stages • Present a general descriptorofELs’abilities at entry to, progress through, and exit from the level • States the extent of linguisticsupportneeded per the linguistic and cognitive demands of tasks, at early stages and as ELs develop
Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLDs) cont’d. Include: Descriptors for early stages of and exit from each proficiency level, using ELD standard structure: • Three Modes of Communication: • Collaborative (engagement in dialogue with others) • Interpretive (comprehension and analysis of written and spoken texts) • Productive (creation of oral presentations and written texts) • Two dimensions of Knowledge of Language: • Meta-linguistic Awareness (language awareness & self-monitoring) • Accuracy of Production (acknowledging variation)
2012 ELD Standards’ Structure and Components: Grade 7 Example
The 2012 ELD Standards’Structure and Components Include: • 2-page “At a Glance” • Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways • Part II: Learning about How English Works • Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Appendices • Appendix A: Foundational Literacy Skills for English Learners • Appendix B: California English Language Development Standards Part II: Learning About How English Works • Appendix C: Theoretical Foundations and Research Base for California’s English Language Development Standards • Appendix D: Context, Development, and Validation of the California English Language Development Standards
Timeline for CA in Larger Context of CCSS Implementation • ELD standards revised & approved (2012) • ELD implementation plan approved (2013) • ELD professional development materials produced (2013-14) • ELA/ELD Curriculum Framework developed by Instructional Quality Commission (2014-15) • SBAC assessment developed (2014-15) • Next-generation ELD assessment developed (2015-16) • ELA/ELD Adoption of K-8 Instructional Materials (2016)
Questions?? Thank you! Denise Giacomini firstname.lastname@example.org
Rigorous and Well-Scaffolded Instruction for English Learners in the New Common Standards Era George C. Bunch, PhD email@example.com Associate Professor University of California, Santa Cruz Chair, English Language Arts Workgroup, Understanding Language San Mateo County Office of Education Council for Instructional Improvement January 11, 2012 Redwood City, CA
Goals of the Understanding Language Initiative (supported by the Carnegie and Gates Foundations) • Engage in a healthy public dialogue around what the CCSS and NGSS imply for English Language Learners (ELLs). • Develop exemplars of what CCSS and NGSS-aligned instruction looks like, to be used as strategic tools by districts (and others). • Develop a vibrant, inquisitive, engaging online community: • Web: ell.stanford.edu • Twitter: ELLStanford • Facebook: Understanding Language • You Tube: Understanding Language 2
Plan for this afternoon • Recognize opportunities for ELs in the new common standards: Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics and ELA/disciplinary literacy; Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) • An “exemplar” ELA unit demonstrating shifts in approaching language, language learning, and instruction for ELs (developed for Understanding Language by Aida Walqui and WestEd in collaboration with the UL ELA team) • Discussion: • What shifts did you see most evident in the unit? • How can teachers, schools, and districts move in this direction?
Cross-Cutting Foundations(ell.stanford.edu) • Language and the Common Core Standards (L. van Lier and A. Walqui) • What is the Development of Literacy the Development of? (G. Hull & E. Moje) • What Does Text Complexity Mean for English Learners and Language Minority Students? (L. Wong Fillmore & C. J. Fillmore) • Instruction for Diverse Groups of English Language Learners (A. Walqui & M. Heritage) 3
Content-Area Foundations(ell.stanford.edu) • Realizing Opportunities for English Learners in the Common Core English Language Arts and Disciplinary Literacy Standards (G. Bunch, A. Kibler, and S. Pimentel) • Mathematics, the Common Core, and Language: Recommendations for Mathematics Instruction for ELLs (J. Moschkovich) • Language Demands and Opportunities in Relation to Next Generation Science Standards for ELLs (H. Quinn, O. Lee, and G. Valdés) 2
Realizing Opportunities for ELs:English Language Arts (Bunch, Kibler, Pimentel) ELs should not be removed from the challenges set out in the standards, but rather supported in meeting them. ELs can meaningfully participate in instruction through “imperfect” language. Instruction must build on -- and build – students’ existing resources (L1, background knowledge, interests and motivations), precisely in order to expand them. Instruction must immerse students in meaning-making language and literacy activities with both micro- and macro- scaffolding (Schleppegrell & O’Hallaron, 2011).
1. READING: Engaging with Complex Texts to Build Knowledge • Requires ELs to read and comprehend literature and informational texts of increasing complexity • Challenges ELs to process “intricate, complicated, and, often, obscure linguistic and cultural features accurately while trying to comprehend content and while remaining distant from it in order to assess the content’s value and accuracy”(Bernhardt, 2011) • How opportunities for language/literacy development can be realized: • Leverage background knowledge, build strategic competence, and provide supports to allow access to texts rather than simplifying or “pre-empting” the text
2. WRITING: Using Evidence to Inform, Argue, and Analyze • Requires ELs to write different text types for varied audiences/purposes and present knowledge gained through research • Challenges ELs to use language skillfully to employ and evaluate evidence when writing arguments and informational reports • How opportunities for language/literacy development can be realized: • Draw upon background strengths to develop content for writing and scaffold writing itself • Provide ELs with meaningful engagement with mentor texts, including opportunities to focus on language and text structure • Ensure that writing is meaningful communication
3. SPEAKING & LISTENING: Working Collaboratively, Understanding Multiple Perspectives, and Presenting Ideas • Requires ELs to articulate their own & build upon other’s ideas, demonstrate understanding in informal interactions and formal presentations • Challenges ELs to employ a range of listening comprehension and speech production strategies in the context of multiple and complex speech events • How opportunities for language/literacy development can be realized: • Provide opportunities for extended discourse & engagement with academic registers • Develop meaningful collaborative tasks that allow students to use their full linguistic/cultural resources • Teach ELs strategies to engage in varied communicative modes
4. LANGUAGE: Using and Developing Linguistic Resources • Requires students to choose language and conventions to achieve particular functions & rhetorical effects • Challenges students to develop and use grammatical structures, vocabulary, and written/oral conventions as meaning-making resources • How opportunities for language/literacy development can be realized: • Recognize limitations of teaching discrete language features in isolation • Recognize that functions and rhetorical effects can be achieved with “imperfect,” non-native developing language
Mathematics:Common Core Emphases(Moschkovich) 1. Balance conceptual understanding & procedural fluency Balance student activities addressing conceptual understanding and procedural fluency, connect two types of knowledge 2. Maintain high cognitive demand Use and maintain high cognitive demand of math tasks in lessons and units 3. Develop beliefs Support students in developing beliefs that math is sensible, worthwhile, and doable 4. Engage students in mathematical practices 2
MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE PRACTICES Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Reason abstractly and quantitatively Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Model with mathematics Use appropriate tools strategically Attend to precision Look for and make use of structure Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning
TWO WORDS OF CAUTION!!! Instruction must include MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS Not only talk and text, but also representations such as objects, manipulatives, drawings, symbols, equations, tables, graphs, etc. 2. What is “mathematical precision”? Issue is not using the precise word, but making a precise claim that applies only under particular constraints or conditions.
SUMMARY: Recommendations for Connecting Math Content to Language #1. Focus on students’ mathematical reasoning, not “accuracy” in using language #2. Focus on mathematical discourse practices, not language as single words, vocabulary, or grammar #3. Recognize the complexity of language in math classrooms, support students to engage with this complexity #4. Treat everyday language as a resource, not an obstacle #5. Uncover the mathematics in what students say & do
Literacy Strategies for All Students (Lee, Quinn, & Valdés) Incorporate reading and writing strategies • Activate prior knowledge • Promote comprehension of expository science texts • Promote scientific genres of writing • Connect science process skills (e.g., describe, explain predict, conclude, report) to language functions (e.g., explain, compare, contrast) • Use graphic organizers (e.g., concept map, word wall, Venn diagram, KWL)
Language Strategies for ELLs Use language support strategies • Promote hands-on inquiry • Use realia (real objects or events) • Encourage multiple modes of representations (gestural, oral, pictorial, graphic, textual) • Use graphic devices (graphs, charts, tables, drawings, pictures) • Use a small number of key terms in multiple contexts
Discourse Strategies for ELLs Attend to language load while maintaining the rigor of science content and process • Recognize ELLs’ varying levels of developing language proficiency and adjust norms of interaction with a student accordingly • Build students’ understanding and discourse skills (e.g., from “it is foggy” to “water vapor condenses into little water drops”) • Encourage students to share ideas, even as the process reveals flaws in a model or explanation, or flawed use of language (“flawed English”)
Home Language Support Use home language support • Present science terms in multiple languages in the beginning of each lesson • Use cognates (and highlight false cognates) in home language • Allow code-switching • Allow ELLs to discuss the lesson in class using their home language • Encourage bilingual students to assist less English proficient students in their home language • Allow ELLs to write about activities in home language
Home Culture Connections Incorporate the ways students’ cultural experiences influence science instruction • Build on students’ lived experiences at home and in the community (i.e., funds of knowledge) • Explore culturally-based ways students communicate and interact in their home and community (i.e., cultural congruence) • Use students’ cultural artifacts, culturally relevant examples, and community resources • Use texts with content that is familiar to ELLs
A Pilot ELA Exemplar “Persuasion Across Time and Space: Analyzing and Producing Complex Texts” A Unit Developed for the Understanding Language Initiative by WestEd’s Teacher Professional Development Program Unit Authors: Aida Walqui, Nanette Koelsch, and Mary Schmida In Collaboration with Understanding Language’s English Language Arts Working Group: George C. Bunch (Chair), Martha Inez Castellón, Susan Pimentel, Lydia Stack, and Aida Walqui 2
Persuasion Unit Illustrates how ELA CCSSs can be used to deepen and accelerate the instruction of ELLs in middle schools. Is based on the notion that ELLs develop conceptual and academic understandings as well as the linguistic resources to express them simultaneously, through participation in rigorous activity that is well scaffolded (Walqui & van Lier, 2010) Invites students to participate in processes of apprenticeship that lead them from being novices to developing increasing levels of expertise while they build their agency and autonomy.