4 Main Comma Rules (1/4) • Use a comma when independent clauses are connected with a coordinating conjunction. The coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so (FANBOYS). Examples: • I missed the bus, and I ran to school. • School starts early, so I need to get up early.
4 Main Comma Rules (2/4) 2. Use commas to separate items (words, phrases, or clauses) in a simple series. a. Words • Example: His favorite sports are football, basketball, and baseball. b. Phrases • Example: I like to sing, to act, and to dance. c. Clauses • Example: Winter comes too soon in Idaho, where autumn colors fade too quickly, and the snow comes before Halloween. **And what type of clause is this in the preceding sentence?**
4 Main Comma Rules (3/4) 3. Use a comma after introductory elements. • Introductory elements come BEFOREthe subject part of a sentence. • Oftentimes, the introductory element is a dependent clause. Words Example: Sure, we can get that for you. Phrases Example: In English class, the students study hard. Clauses Example: Whenever the fire bell rings, I accidentally scream. Note: Adverb clauses at the end of a sentence are NOT set off by commas. • Example: The soldiers had trouble finding jobs when the war ended.
4 Main Comma Rules (4/4) 4. Use commas to set off extra information. A parenthetical expression is a word or phrase that is unrelated to the rest of the sentence and interrupts the general flow of the sentence. Examples: • We will go, Ben, as soon as your father arrives. • The boys, therefore, decided to call a tow truck. • The Internet, in my opinion, has made shopping easier than ever. • A non-essential expression is set off by commas. There are three types: appositives, participial phrases, and adjective clauses. • An appositive is a word or phrase that renames or describes a noun or pronoun—in other words, appositives provide extra information. • Example: He misbehaved in class and was sent to see the principal, Mr. Pymm, who gave him Saturday School. • A participial phrasethat is non-essential. • Example: Mr. Haroldson, wearing a forties-style hat, taught the history class today. • A non-essential adjective clause. • Example: The Edwards Theater, which is our favorite theater in town, ran a weekend special.
What is the difference in this campaign? Don’t Fail, Idaho! Don’t Fail Idaho!
Sentence Structures • Simple • 1 independent clause • Compound • 2 independent clauses • Complex • ONLY 1 independent with 1 or more dependent • Compound-complex • 2 independent + 1 or more dependent
Simple Sentences • They can be short. • The boy laughed. • They can be long. • The tall, good-looking boy with the curly blond hair laughed uproariously at his best friend’s suggestion. • This is where diagramming is helpful. Visualize where you would put everything: there is only one subject and verb, so in this case, it is a simple sentence. • Yet simple sentences can have compound verbs, objects, phrases, etc. Simple sentences just have one independent clause!
Which one is NOT a simple sentence?**Tip: Cross off phrases** • My best friend in the whole world is coming over to my house to visit me this afternoon. • Several of her favorite romantic love songs were playing on the radio that afternoon in the park. • Rushing out the door, I tripped and scraped my knee. • My sister, who is a junior this year, yearns for summer.
Which one is NOT a simple sentence?**Tip: Cross off phrases** • My best friendin the whole world is coming over to my house to visit me this afternoon. • Severalof her favorite romantic love songs were playing on the radio that afternoon in the park. • Rushing out the door, I tripped and scraped my knee. • My sister, who is a junior this year, yearnsfor summer vacation.
Adjective Clause • The adjective clause CANNOT MOVE AROUND. It is just plain silly if you move it around. • ItMUST be next to the noun or pronoun it describes. • I like the dress that is black. • That is black I like the dress. • He will ask the girl who likes himto prom. • Who likes him to prom he will ask the girl.
Adverb Clause • The adverb clause usually starts with a subordinating conjunction (when, where, since, before, because, after). • Hence, the adverb clause answers the adverb questions. • If you can switch it around in a sentence, it is an adverb clause. • Because it is Friday, I am excited. • After I came home, I made dinner. • I count sheep before I go to sleep. • Although I love Idaho, I miss Maryland.
Recognizing Fragments & Run-ons Fragments Run-ons Independent clause, independent clause I like watermelons, they are juicy. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction, independent clause,coordinating conjunction, independent clause. It is cold, so I am going to turn on the heat, and then I will be warm. • Dependent clause • Because it is Friday. • Whoever likes football. • When I turned 16. • Phrase • Early in the morning. • Hiking up the mountain. • NOTE: EVERY single sentence must have an independent clause
How to fix these problems. • Use a period between independent clauses. • Use a semicolon between independent clauses to show relationship between them. I love my students; they are so fun. • Use a comma and coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) between independent clauses. My students are fun, but sometimes they can be so sidetracked. • Use a semicolon and a conjunction adverb (these are transitions) followed by a comma to connect ideas or show contrast. My students can be so sidetracked; however, I still love them. • Put content into phrases (prepositional, participle, gerund, infinitive). • Use a subordinating conjunction or pronoun to connect dependent clauses to independent clauses. My students who love English are so fun. Because my students love English, class is so fun. Class is so fun because my students love English.
Subject-Verb Agreement • Singular subjects have singular verbs. • Plural subjects have plural verbs. • Remember to ignore prepositional phrases to find the REAL subject! • A high percentage of the population is/are voting for the new school. • Each of the girls is/are wearing pink. • She like/likes writing. • My sister and I like/likes reading.
Subject-Verb Agreement • Singular subjects have singular verbs. • Plural subjects have plural verbs. • Remember to ignore prepositional phrases to find the REAL subject! • A high percentageof the population is/are voting for the new school. • Each of the girls is/are wearing pink. • She like/likes writing. • My sister and I like/likes reading.
Ante- means “before,” so the original subject (whether it’s a noun or pronoun) MUST match with the pronoun that replaces it. Pronoun-antecedent agreement
When you can, just make the antecedent plural • A person should be able to make up their own mind about prayer in schools (incorrect). • People should be able to make up their own minds about prayer in schools (correct). • A teacher should show their students love and compassion (incorrect). • Teachers should show their students love and compassion (correct). • Often, a doctor will leave their patients waiting for a ridiculously long time (incorrect). • Often, doctors will leave their patients waiting for a ridiculously long time (correct).
Three Most Important Agreement Rules (1/3) • Some pronouns are ALWAYS singular; therefore, they need singular verbs and singular pronouns. Anybody Everybody Somebody Neither Either Each Someone
Three Most Important Agreement Rules (2/3) 2. “And” makes subjects plural; therefore, the verb and pronouns should be plural. Joey and Melissa think their kids are brilliant. Joey thinks his kids are brilliant.
Three Most Important Agreement Rules (3/3) • If two antecedents are joined by either/or, neither/nor, the pronoun agrees with the antecedent closest to it. • Either Michael or his friends will bring their video games to the party. • Either his friends or Michael will bring his video games to the party. • The verb also agrees with the closest subject. • Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house. • Neither my brothers nor my fatheris going to sell the house.
Identify the subject & the pronoun it replaces. 1. Somebody dropped (their/his or her) wallet. 2. Each of the dogs needs (their/its) own crate. 3. Daniel or Dave left (their/his) sunglasses on the table in the hallway. 4. Everybody must wash (their/his or her) hands before dinner. 5. I really like To Kill A Mockingbird because you get a lot out of the themes and characters. Is this correct?
Identify the subject & the pronoun it replaces. 1. Somebody dropped (their/his or her) wallet. 2. Each of the dogs needs (their/its) own crate. 3. Daniel or Dave left (their/his) sunglasses on the table in the hallway. 4. Everybody must wash (their/his or her) hands before dinner. 5. I really like To Kill A Mockingbird because you get a lot out of the themes and characters. Is this correct? NO.
Conflicts & Climax • Internal • External • Rising • Falling
Figurative Language • Metaphor • Simile • Personification • Symbolism • Sensory writing
Voice • Voice is the author's style, the quality that makes his or her writing unique, and which conveys the author's attitude (tone), personality, and character • Young writers are often urged to find their own voice in fiction, but many teachers believe that voice is something that emerges naturally as a writer develops. • (Wiehardt)
Tone • Tone: the writer's attitude toward the material and/or readers. • Tone may be playful, formal, angry, serious, ironic, outraged, baffled, tender, serene, depressed, etc. • It has NOTHING to do with tone of voice—the author does not read out loud to you. You just have the author’s words and how he or she writes these words on the page.
Epiphany Denotation (Merriam Webster) • an intuitive grasp of reality through something (as an event) usually simple and striking • an illuminating discovery, realization, or disclosure • Epiphanies are part of the universal human experience; however, we all experience epiphanies differently, for they are internal, life-changing, personalized realizations.
What is Elie Wiesel’s main epiphany? I remember: it happened yesterday or eternities ago. A young Jewish boy discovered the kingdom of night. I remember his bewilderment, I remember his anguish. It all happened so fast. The ghetto. The deportation. The sealed cattle car. The fiery altar upon which the history of our people and the future of mankind were meant to be sacrificed. —“Keep Memory Alive” by Elie Wiesel
Speeches Monologue Soliloquy – Think “solo” A characters reveals inner thoughts and feelings while he or she is alone. A character makes a long, uninterrupted speech while other characters listen.
Vocabulary—Using Context Clues • Identify the situation • Identify what the word is not—usually there is a non-example in the sentence • Are there any synonyms or antonyms in the sentence?
Context Clues • The handful of recalcitrant students who refuse to obey study hall regulations are violating the rights of the majority. • The handful of recalcitrant students who refuse to obey study hall regulations are violating the rights of the majority.
Context Clues • Some politicians are more zealous in promoting their own careers than in seeking to help the people who elected them. • Some politicians are morezealous in promoting their own careers than in seeking to help the people who elected them.
Context Clues • Mitch is usually a man of very few words, but he was certainly voluble when we asked him about his artwork. • Mitch is usually a man of very few words, but he was certainlyvoluble when we asked him about his artwork.
Context Clues • The general’s victory was so decisive that he could afford to be magnanimous toward his former enemies. • The general’s victory was so decisive that he could afford to be magnanimous toward his former enemies.