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A CHURCH HISTORY COURSE
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A CHURCH HISTORY COURSE

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  1. A CHURCH HISTORY COURSE CHAPTER ONE

  2. WHY STUDY HISTORY? “THOSE WHO FORGET THE MISTAKES OF HISTORY ARE CONDEMNED TO REPEAT THEM”

  3. REASONS TO STUDY HISTORY FORM OUR SELF-IDENTITY AVOID MISTAKES MADE IN THE PAST MAKE WISE CHOICES IN THE FUTURE

  4. WHY STUDY CHURCH HISTORY? PROVIDES US WITH A PERSPECTIVE ON HOW CHRISTIANS HAVE ATTEMPTED TO CARRY OUT JESUS OF NAZARETH’S GOSPEL MESSAGE. TO GAIN A BETTER SENSE OF THE CHRISTIAN IDENTITY TO DISTINGUISH THE ESSENTIAL FROM THE NONESSENTIAL IN CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN PRACTICE TO CHOOSE WISELY THE ACTIONS WE TAKE IN SHAPING OUR WORLD AND FUTURE.

  5. UNDERSTANDING CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN IDENTITY AS CATHOLIC DEEPEN YOUR SENSE OF IDENTITY AS A NON-CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN INFORM YOU OF PARTS OF YOUR OWN CHURCH’S HISTORY AS A NON-CHRISTIAN GAIN AN APPRECIATION OF THE CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN IDENTITY

  6. DISTINGUISHINGBETWEEN THE ESSSENTIAL AND THE NON-ESSENTIAL VATICAN COUNCIL (1962-1965) A. CHANGES IN THE MASS B. CHANGES OIN THE LITURGY C. THE ROLE OF DEACONS

  7. PERCEPTION CAN BE A FALSE REALITY WITHOUT ADEQUATE KNOWLEDGE OF PEOPLE AND INSTITUTIONS, OUR DECISIONS REGARDING THEM OUR UNFAIR AND/OR UNREASONABLE

  8. WHO IS AFFECTED BY THIS HISTORICAL ANALYSIS? CULTURES SOCIETIES NATIONS

  9. SIX WAYS OF SEEING THE CHURCH DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF ASPECTS OF HE CHURCH

  10. THE CHURCH AS BODY OF CHRIST OR PEOPLE OF THE LORD: “WE ARE RELATED TO ONE ANOTHER AS A FAMILY” CHURCH AS THE BODY OF CHRIST IN THE HEBREW SCRIPTURE: THE ISRAELITES. IN THE CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURE: THOSE WHO FOLLOW CHRIST’S CALL.

  11. THE CHURCH AS INSTITUTION: “WE ARE ORGANIZED THROUGH FORMAL STRUCTURES” INSTITUTION: ORGANIZED PATTERNS, RULES AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES THAT HAVE DEVELOPED TO HELP CARRY OUT A GROUP OR MOVEMENT’S PURPOSE”

  12. THE CHURCH AS SACRAMENT: “WE ARE A VISIBLE, TANGIBLE SIGN OF GOD’S LOVE” PHYSICAL TANGIBLE PROOF THAT GOD IS WITH US: THE SACRACMENTS THE CHURCH IS A PHYSICAL SIGN OF GOD’S SAVING LOVE THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY MAINTAINS ITS IDENTIY THROUGH ITS LITURGICAL CELEBRATIONS

  13. THE CHURCH A HERALD OF GOD’S WORD: WE PROCLAIM THE GOOD NEWS” THE OFFICIAL MESSENGER OF PROCLAIMING THE WORD OF GOD ANY GATHER AT WHICH CHRISTIANS READ THE WORD OF GOD REFLECTS THE CHURCH ACTTING AS A HERALD THE MASS, PUBLICATIONS AND COMMITTED ACTIONS BY CHRISTIANS HERALD THE GOOD NEWS

  14. THE CHURCH AS SERVANT:WE ARE AT THE SERVICE OF GOD AND THEREFORE OF ALL HUMANKIND” JESUS EXAMPLE A THE LAST SUPPER: SERVANTS WHO GAVE OF THEMSELVES AND MAKE SACRIFICES FOR OTHERS BECOMES SERVANTS THROUGH: INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES AND THE EFFORTS OF INDIVIDUAL CHRISTIANS

  15. THE CHURCH AS COMMUNITY OF DISCIPLES: WE ARE FOLLOWERS OF JESUS”

  16. CHAPTER 2: A CHURCH OF CONVERTS

  17. JESUS • RAISED IN NAZARETH IN GALILEE • GOSPELS OF MATTHEW, MARK, LUKE AND JOHN ARE SOURCES OF INFORMATION OF CHRIST’S LIFE • WRITTEN 40-70 YEARS AFTER HIS DEATH • DRAWN ON ORAL TRADITION • WRITTEN FOR THE PURPOSE OF CONVERTING PEOPLE • JESUS’ PUBLIC LIFE BEGINS WITH HIS BAPTISM BY JOHN THE BAPTIST IN THE JORDAN RIVER

  18. THE CHURCH SPREADS ACROSS THE EMPIRE • THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS IS THE STARTING POINT • THE APOSTLES: PETER, JOHN AND JAMES WERE THE MOST IMPORTANT • WITHIN ONE CENTURY CHRISTIANITY SPREAD ACROSS THE ROMAN EMPIRE

  19. THE EARLY CHRISTIANS • FIRST APOSTLES AND CONVERTS WERE JEWS • FIRST CHRISTIANS WERE A SECT WITHIN THE JEWS WHO BELIEVED THAT CHRIST WAS THE MESSIAH • SOME JEWISH LEADERS (SADDUCEES) REGARDED THE CHRISTIANS AS NONCONFORMISTS AND SHOULD BE SUPPRESSED. • ONE OF THE EARLIEST CONVERTS WAS STEPHEN; A HELLENTISTIC JEW • DENOUNCED BY THE SANHEDRIN FOR SPEAKING AGAINST THE TEMPLE • STONED TO DEATH • PERCECUTION FOLLOWS FOLLOWERS BEGIN TO SPREAD WORD AMONG NON-JEWS (GENTILES)

  20. PREACHING TO THE GENTILES • WOULD THE GENTILES BE REQUIRED TO OBSERVE JEWISH LAW? • FEAR THAT THE CHURCH WOULD BE TAKEN OVER BY THE GENTILES AND LOSE ITS JEWISH CHARACTER • PAUL (SAUL OF TARSAS) • PRESENT AT THE STONING OF STEPHEN • “WHAT MAKES A MAN RIGHTEOUS IS NOT OBEDEIENCE TO THE LAW, BUT FAITH IN JESUS CHRIST” • THE CHURCH SHED ITS JEWISH CHARACTER AND BECAME THE CHURCH OF THE WORLD

  21. PAUL’S ROAD TRIP • ASIA MINOR • GREECE • WENT ONLY TO THOSE CITIES WHERE THE GOSPEL HAD NOT YET BEEN PREACHED • HE BELIVED THAT CHRIST WAS THE FULFILLMENT OF THE PROMISES OF THE HEBREW SCRIPTURE • EPISTLES ARE LETTERS HE WROTE TO CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES; ATTEMPTING TO STAY IN TOUCH AND MAINTAIN CHRISTIAN UNITY • MARTYRED AROUND 64 A.D. UNDER CHARGES OF TREASON DURING THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR NERO

  22. OTHER EARLY MISSIONARIES • PETER ALSO MARTYRED DURING NERO’S REIGN • CONVERSION OF GENTILES MUCH MORE SUCCESSFUL THAN JEWISH CONVERSIONS

  23. WHAT AIDED THE MISSIONARY JOURNEY? • ROMAN PEACE (PAX ROMANA) • SYSTEM OF ROADS • THE ROME WAS THIRSTING A SPRITUAL HUNGER

  24. WHY THE POPULARITY OF CHRISTIANITY? • EMBRACED ALL PEOPLE • RICH AND POOR • SLAVES AND NOBLES • MEN AND WOMEN • GAVE HOPE TO THE TO THE POWERLESS • APPEALED TO THOSE TURNED OFF BY THE ROMAN LAVISH LIFESTYLE • OFFERED A PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD • PROMISED ETERNAL LIFE AFTER DEATH • CHRISITANITY WAS FOUNDED ON A HISTORICAL PERSON • THE LIVING EXAMPLES OF THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY

  25. CHAPTER 3 THE LASTING LEGACY OF THE APOSTLES

  26. SECTION 3.1 • GENTILES ATTRACTED BY PAUL’S MESSAGE THAT GOD SAVES ALL • MEALS AND THE EUCHARIST TOOK PLACE IN HOMES • IN ORDER TO BREAK BREAD AND SHARE THE GOOD NEWS • WORSHIPPED AND LIVED IN A COMMUNAL SETTING • CONFLICT WITH JEWS FOLLOWED BY PERSECUTION • PAUL JOURNEYED TO EPHESUS, THESSALONICA, CORINTH AND PHILIPPI

  27. PAGAN DEITIES • GREEK AND ROMANS WORSHIPPED ANTHROPOMORPHIC DEITIES • HUMAN TRAITS AND FRAILTIES • ROMAN RULERS OFTEN VIEWED THEMSELVES AS GODS • ROMANS VIEWED THE CHRISTIANS WITH A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF CYNICISM • JESUS WAS IN STARK CONTRAST TO ROMAN CONCEPTIONS OF GOD

  28. SMALL CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES: PRAYER AND MUTUAL LOVE • PAUL’S LETTERS, EPISTLES, REMAIN TO EMPHASIZE HIS IMPORTANT ROLE • CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES WERE A TESTAMENT TO THEIR MESSAGE • PAUL’S SECOND AND THIRD JOURNEYS DEVELOP THE COMMUNITIES

  29. COMMUNITIES ON PAUL’S SECOND JOURNEY • FOUR YEARS WITH SILAS, TIMOTHY AND LUKE • TRAVELED TO PHILIPPI (map page 48)

  30. LOVE BRINGS CONVERSIONS IN PHILIPPI • PAUL JAILED FOR CASTING A DEMON OUT OF A SLAVE GIRL WHO WAS A FORTUNE TELLER • EARTHQUAKE OCCURS • PAUL CONVERTS HIS JAILOR • EVENTUALLY RELEASED BECAUSE HE WAS A ROMAN CITIZEN

  31. RUN OUT OF THESSALONICA • THREATENED WITH THE CHARGE OF TREASON BECAUSE OF HIS PREACHINGS

  32. REJECTION IN ATHENS • GREEKS WERE SKEPTICAL OF CHRISTIANITY • THE POSSIBILITY OF THE RESSURRECTION

  33. CHALLENGE IN CORINTH • STAYED AT THE HOME OF PRISCILLA AND HER HUSBAND AQUILA • CORINTH WAS CONFRONTED WITH A SPLIT IN THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY • MANY OF PAUL’S LETTERS TO THE CORINTHIAN CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY REFLECT THIS FACTIONALISM • IT IS EVENTUALLY RESOLVED

  34. THE COMMUNITIES ON PAUL’S THIRD JOURNEY • TAKING ON MAGICIANS IN EPHESUS • EPHESUS WAS A CROSSROADS OF TRADE FROM THE EASTERN AND WESTERN PORTION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. • FALSE HEALERS AND SILVERSMITHS LED THE OPPOSITION TO PAUL’S PRESENCE • SILVER STATUES TO THE GODDESS DIANA (ARTEMIS) WERE POPULAR

  35. TROUBLES FOR PAUL IN JERUSALEM • A MISSION OF MERCY • JERUSALEM WAS CONFRONTED WITH STARVATION AGAIN • PAUL GOES TO JERUSALEM TO BRING NEEDED FOOD • CONFLICT BETWEEN JEWISH CHRISTIANS AND GENTILE CHRISTIANS AGAIN RISES • PAUL WAS CONCERNED FOR HIS SAFETY

  36. THE CHRISTIAN TESTAMENT: LETTERS, STORIES AND INSPIRATION • DEVELOPMENT THE CHRISTIAN ORALLY AND IN WRITING • LETTERS, ACCOUNTS OF JESUS’ LIFE AND THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLES • BY THE END OF THE 4TH CENTURY, 27 WRITINGS WERE DESIGNATED THE “CHRISTIAN CANON” OR STANDARD

  37. PAUL’S EPISTLES: LETTERS OF LOVE TO THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES • PAUL’S LETTER TO THESSALONICA WAS HIS FIRST EPISTLE • HE ADDRESSED HIS LETTERS TO THE “CHURCHES” MEANING ASSEMBLIES IN THE PARTICULAR COMMUNITIES • OTHER EPISTLES WERE WRITTEN TO THE ROMANS, GALATIANS, CORINTHIANS, AND EPHESIANS • ONE OF THE LETTERS WAS TO CONVINCE THE MEMBERS THAT THE SECOND COMING WAS NOT NECESSARILY AT HAND • HIS LETTERS WERE CIRCULATED THROUGHOUT CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES, LONG AFTER HIS DEATH

  38. PAUL’S MESSAGE SUMMARIZED • GOD SO LOVES US THAT HE SENT HIS SON TO SUFFER AND DIE IN ORDER TO SHOW US WHAT LIFE IN GOD IS ALL ABOUT. • BELIEF IN JESUS NOT ADHERENCE TO THE LAW IS WHAT SAVES US.

  39. TREASURES PASSED ON • MUCH DEBATE AS TO THE AUTHENTICITY OF SOME OF THE APOSTLES LETTERS • PROBABLY DICTATED TO A SCRIBE • SOME MAY HAVE BEEN AUTHORED BY PEOPLE WHO “KNEW” PAUL’S STYLE • GOSPELS BEGAN TO BE WRITTEN DOWN BETWEEN 65-70 A.D.

  40. THE GOSPELS: ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION, WHO WAS JESUS? • WRITTEN DURING THE LAST THIRD OF THE FIRST CENTURY • GOSPEL MEANS “GOOD NEWS”

  41. THE GOOD NEWS TOLD, THEN WRITTEN DOWN • WRITTEN DOWN BECAUSE • ONLY FEW PEOPLE LIVING AT THE TIME BEEN WITNESSES TO CHRIST’S LIFE • IN ORDER TO SPREAD THE WORD

  42. DIFFERENT GOSPELS, DIFFERENT AUDIENCES • MARK • BETWEEN 65-70 A.D. • DIRECTED TO GENTILES • SOURCE FOR MATTHEW AND LUKE • MATTHEW • BETWEEN 80-100 A.D. • IN ANTIOCH FOR A JEWISH AND GENTILE COMMUNITY • HOW JESUS AS THE MESSIAH FULFILLED THE HOPES AND PROPHECIES OF THE JEWISH TRADITION • LUKE • AROUND 85 A.D. • A COMPANION OF PAUL WHO WAS A DOCTOR AND A GENTILE • DEPENDENT ON PREVIOUS GOSPELS; WRITTEN FOR GENTILES • JOHN • AT END OF FIRST CENTURY • JESUS WAS DIVINE AND GOD-MADE-FLESH • MANY FEEL IT WAS WRITTEN BY CONTEMPORARIES OF THE APOSTLE JOHN BASED ON HIS TEACHINGS

  43. OTHER WRITINGS OF THE CHRISTIAN TESTAMENTS • ACTS OF THE APOSTLES • WRITTEN BY LUKE • CHURCH’S EARLY DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OF GOOD NEWS • EPISTLES • LETTERS FROM JAMES, PETER, JOHN AND JUDE • LETTER TO THE HEBREWS OF UNKNOWN AUTHORSHIP • BOOK OF REVELATION • HIGHLY SYMBOLIC AND MYSTERIOUS IMAGES INSPIRING CHRISTIANS DURING PERSECUTIONS • TWO ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF CHRISTIANITY • SMALL LOCAL COMMUNITIES OF BELIEVERS IN JESUS • SCRIPTURES OF THE CHRISTIAN TESTAMENT • ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE COMMUNITIES

  44. A MOB ATTACK AND ROMAN PROTECTION • NARROWLY ESCAPES DEATH AT THE HAND OF A JEWISH MOB • PROTECTED BY ROMAN SOLDIERS • HELD UNDER HOUSE ARREST IN THE CITY OF CAESAREA • WANTED HIS TRIAL HELD IN ROME BECAUSE HE WAS A ROMAN CITIZEN

  45. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS • LEGACY LEFT BY PAUL AND OTHER APOSTLES • SMALL CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES • THE GIFT OF THE CHRISTIAN (NEW) TESTAMENT • LEGACY AFTER RENEWAL AT THE SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL IN THE 1960s.

  46. PAUL’S FINAL YEARS IN ROME • SPENT SEVERAL YEARS UNDER HOUSE ARREST IN ROME • EVENTUALLY FREED AND VISITED CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN GREECE AND ASIA MINOR • IN 64 B.C., HE BECOMES ONE OF THE VICTEMS OF THE EMPEROR NERO’S PERSECUTIONS • CHRISTIANS WERE BLAMED FOR THE BURNING OF A LARGE PORTION OF ROME • THEY ALSO WERE VIEWED AS TREASONOUS AND UNPATRIOTIC

  47. THE FINAL BREAK WITH JUDAISM: CHRISTIANITY AS A NEW RELIGION • BY THE END OF THE FIRST CENTURY, CHRISTIANITY WAS NO LONGER VIEWED AS A MOVEMENT WITHIN JUDAISM • IT HAD ROOTS WITHIN JUDAISM, BUT WAS A RELIGION IN AND OF ITSELF

  48. JESUS THE JEW • JESUS WAS RAISED A AS JEW • SPOKE ARAMAIC • FOLLOWED THE TORAH • HAD JEWISH FRIENDS • EARLIEST FOLLOWERS WERE JEWS

  49. THE BREACH WIDENS • IN 62 A.D., JAMES THE LEADER OF THE CHRISTIANS IN JERUSALEM IS STONED TO DEATH AND CHARGED WITH BLASPHEMY BY THE HIGH PRIEST

  50. A MATTER OF SURVIVAL • IN 66 A.D. THE JEWS REBEL AGAINST ROME • IN 70 A.D., ROME CONQUERS JERUSALEM AND DESTROYS THE TEMPLE • IN ORDER FOR JUDAISM TO SURVIVE, CONFORMITY WAS REQUIRED • JEWISH SYNAGOGUES NO LONGER WELCOME NONCONFORMING CHRISTIANS • OFFICIAL SPLIT BETWEEN JEWS AND CHRISTIANS OCCURS IN 90 A.D.