1 / 27

Sugar & Oil Crops

Sugar & Oil Crops. Objectives :. Explain sugar and vegetable oil Identify major sources of sugar Describe the production of sugar crops Describe the production of oil crops . Sugar and Oil. Sugars: Sugar- any food product used as a sweetener

Télécharger la présentation

Sugar & Oil Crops

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Sugar & Oil Crops

  2. Objectives: • Explain sugar and vegetable oil • Identify major sources of sugar • Describe the production of sugar crops • Describe the production of oil crops

  3. Sugar and Oil • Sugars: • Sugar- any food product used as a sweetener • Plants (maple, corn) and animals (lactose or milk sugar) are sources of sugar

  4. Vegetable oils: • Type of fat obtained from certain plants

  5. Sugar Sources: • Plant sources are the most important • Over half the worlds’ sugar comes from sugar cane 2 forms: • Granulated- crystals of raw sugar or (confectioner’s) finely ground • Liquid-syrup

  6. Cane Sugar Mfg: • Crop 7-15 ft. tall • Harvested and sent to refinery • Crushed and squeezed • Blackstrap- the syrup produced during refining • Molasses- brown raw sugar that forms during refining when the blackstrap is removed

  7. Beet Sugar Mfg.: • Made from large cone shaped root of the beet • Long tap-root makes the beet good for dry growing areas • Can be stored outdoors for long periods with no loss • Cossetes- the beet slices that are diffused during refining • Beet Pulp- the dried out cossetes that remain after refining often used for cattle feed • Where grown:- Minnesota leads production followed by Idaho, ND, Michigan and California

  8. Sugar Crop Production: • Sugar cane production: • Warm tropical climates • Very efficient growth • Has nodes that can sprout new growth • Mature stalks can seed but plants grown for harvest never make it to this stage • Harvested in the fall • Sap- watery juice containing sugar that makes up most of the weight of sugar cane • Ratoon crop- sugar cane produced by sprouting (plants that grow from harvested stubble

  9. Sugar Beet Production: • Beets grown for seed are grown for 2 years • Sugar formation increases in late summer as the plants pull more nitrogen from the soil • The harvesting equipment is very unique this equipment cuts, lifts and loads the beets • Beets are hauled to processing facilities or piling stations

  10. Sweet Sorghum: • A variety of grain sorghum produced for its “sweet juice” • Can be planted following corn or soybeans • Harvested at mature stage with leaves and seed removed • Stalks are squeezed the juice is cooked and canned for use

  11. Vegetable Oil Sources: • Most plants contain small quantities of oil • Cooking oil- plant fat in which foods can be prepared • Mayonnaise, dressing, and shortening • Non-cooking oil- plant fat used in products such as: • Printing ink, soap, leather tanning, fuels

  12. Vegetable Oil Sources: • Ethanol- vegetable oil used as a fuel instead of gasoline or a blend of the two • Biodiesel- vegetable oil that has undergone esterification and blended with diesel fuel • Bi-products of vegetable oil production: • Chewing gum, plywood, crayons, plastics, animal feed, and fertilizer

  13. Oil Crops: • Soybeans, canola, corn, cottonseed, peanuts, safflower, sesame, flaxseed, Tung seed, rapeseed, mustard, lesquerella, olive, and coconut, spearmint, and peppermint • Various uses on multiple scales (oil and bi-products) • Mfg. of vegetable oils: • Presses and solvents

  14. Oil Crop Production: • Types grown: • Soybeans • One of the U.S. leading crops • More grown in the U.S. than the rest of the world combined • 60 million acres per year • 25-60 BPA • Processed for oil and meal • Avg. 11 lbs. of oil, 43 lbs. of meal, 4.2 lbs. of hulls per bushel

  15. Planting: • High quality seeds • Seedbed: land needs to be leveled be loose at the surface but tight below to hold water, terraces may also be necessary to slow water and avoid erosion • Seeding: soybeans are drilled to 1.5 – 2 in deep

  16. Fertilization: • Good bean yields require fertilizer being a legume nitrogen is not a problem as long as the seeds are inoculated at planting • Inoculating-mixing nitrogen fixing rhizobia bacteria with the seeds • Soil test should be taken to determine the need for soil amendments

  17. Pest management: • IPM should be used to control pests • Common pests include: insects, weeds, and diseases • Can be somewhat controlled by planting resistant varieties • Cultural practices can be used to avoid certain pest

  18. Harvesting: • Combining after plant matures about 14% moisture • Pre-harvest loss- loss that occurs before the combine hits the field (aka shatter) • Harvest loss- loss caused during the harvest (machinery adjustment)

  19. Peanut Production: • Ranks 3rd in worldwide oil crop production • Types grown: • 4 types, runner (peanut butter), Virginia (roasting), Spanish (candy), valencia

  20. Varieties: • Varieties should be selected for climate adaptation and yield and must meet market requirements • Vary and should be chosen according to region that best supports their growth and production

  21. Harvesting: • harvested when 75% or more of the pods show darkening • uses a digger-shaker-windrower

  22. Canola Production: • seeds are 45% oil • planted in the spring or fall • low levels of erucic acid that causes heart disease • ND and MN lead US production • Harvested when seeds brown must be harvested before shatter

  23. Sunflower Production: • Tall yellow flowers • Most go to oil production (smaller seed) • some for birdseed, some for human snacks (larger seed) • 3 to 1o ft tall head can produce up to 1,000 seeds • Require less moisture than most crops due to extensive root system • Slower growth over season

  24. Safflower Production: • Similar to sunflower • Used to make cooking oil, paint, and varnishes • Cool temp tolerant • Resemble thistles • 30% to 40% oil • Harvested by combine • Shattering is not a problem

  25. Summary: • Sugar crops are sources of food and sweeteners such as: • Sugar beets, cane, corn, and maple • Oil crops are used for: • vegetable oils for cooking, food sources, paint, and fuel • Oil crops are: • soybeans, peanuts, cotton seed, corn, canola, sunflowers, and safflowers

  26. Summary: • Cultural requirements vary: • Sugar cane likes tropical climate, high moisture • sugar beets like cooler climates with less moisture • Soybeans are the most important oil crop in the U.S • good rotational relationship with corn because it is a legume and can fix nitrogen

  27. Summary: • Peanuts and canola are also important oil crops • Sunflowers and safflowers are lesser grown oil crops in the U.S. but have a niche due to their ability to grow in cooler climates with less moisture

More Related