Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

137 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم تهیه کننده : دکتر مسعود مطلبی http://healthf.kaums.ac.ir/ motallebi_m@kaums.ac.ir

  2. Examples • 90 dB + 90 dB = 93 dB • 100 dB + 100 dB = 103 dB

  3. Decibel Scales • A scale • measures what humans hear • B scale • used by phone company • C scale • measures all sound

  4. Permissible Noise Exposure in Construction

  5. Effects of Noise Exposure Daily Allowable Exposure Times to Noise The table below shows noise levels and how long a person can be exposed without hearing protection before there is damage to the ear. Noise LevelAllowable Exposure Time 85 decibels 8 hours 90 decibels 4 hours 100 decibels 1 hour 105 decibels 30 minutes 110 decibels 15 minutes 115 decibels 0 minutes 9

  6. IN IRAN • Noise LevelAllowable Exposure Time • 85 decibels 8 hours • 88 decibels 4 hours • 94 decibels 1 hour • 97 decibels 30 minutes • 100 decibels 15 minutes • 115 decibels 0 minutes

  7. EFFECTS OF NOISE • loss of hearing • Stress • behavioral effects • negative impact on health

  8. Effects of Noise Exposure What Exposure to Loud Noise Will Do • Exposure to loud noise will inevitably cause hearing loss over time. • Loud noise damages or destroys the nerves in the inner ear. • Another effect can be “tinnitus” or permanent ringing in the ear. 2

  9. Effects of Noise Exposure Long Term Exposure to Noise • Our ears can recover from short exposure to loud noise, but over time nerve damage will occur. • The longer and louder the noise, the greater chance permanent damage will occur. 4

  10. Effects of Noise Exposure Hearing Loss From Noise Exposure • Hearing loss from noise exposure is usually not noticed because it is so gradual. • Usually a person loses the ability to hear higher pitches first. • Often the first noticeable effect is difficulty in hearing speech. 5

  11. Effects of Noise Exposure Tinnitus From Noise Exposure • Exposure to high noise levels can also cause permanent ringing in the ear or “tinnitus”. • Tinnitus sufferers usually complain of constant whistling, squealing, roaring or buzzing in one or both ears. • Severe tinnitus may disrupt sleep, reduce concentration and cause irritability and depression. 6

  12. Effects of Noise Exposure What is Too Much Noise Exposure? • Damage from noise exposure depends on the loudness and length of exposure. • Scientific studies have shown that hearing loss can occur when 8-hour average noise exposure exceeds 85 decibels. 7

  13. Effects of Noise Exposure What is Too Much Noise Exposure? • The risk of hearing loss increases dramatically as noise levels increase. • Exposure to noise levels above 115 decibels for even 5 minutes is very risky. • Impact or banging noise above 140 decibels will cause immediate damage to nerves in the ear. 8

  14. (HLPPS)Hearing Loss Prevention Programs NIOSH(1996)Recommended components of HLPPs : 1-Initial and annual audits of procedure. 2-Assessment of noise exposures. 3-Engineering or administrative control. 4-Audiometric evaluation and monitoring of workers hearing. 5-Use of hearing protectors for exposure equal to greater than 85dBA. 6-Education and motivation of worker. 7-Record keeping. 8-Program evaluation for effectiveness.

  15. COMMITMENT BY BOTH MANAGEMENT AND WORKERS IS NECESSARY FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM

  16. ARRANGE THE TEAM • Audiologist • Industrial hygienist • Management representative • Employee representative • Occupational medicine physician • Manufacture engineers

  17. COMPONENT 1

  18. COMPONENT 2EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT اهداف اندازه گیری صدا 1-تعیین میزان مواجهه کارگران با صدا 2-تعیین میزان صدای ماشین الات 3- اندازه گیری محیطی صدا

  19. مراحل انجام کار 1- تعیین هدف اندازه گیری 2- تعیین وسیله اندازه گیری 3-کالیبراسون وسیله 4- گرد اوری اطلاعات لازم 5- تعیین استاندارد مواجهه 6-بکارگیری روش اجرایی مناسب

  20. COMPONENT 3 • Engineering control : any modification or replacement of equipment or related physical change at noise source or along the transmission path that reduces the noise level at the employee s ear • Administrative controls are defined as changes in the work schedule or operation that reduce worker noise exposures.

  21. Noise control engineering: 1- Lower the source noise. 2-Modify the propagation path. 3-Protect receiver. 4-Combination of each.

  22. کنترل صدا در منبع: 1-انتخاب صحیح دستگاه متناسب با فرآیند تولید. 2- نگهداری صحیح دستگاه. 3- استقرار مناسب دستگاهها. 4- کنترل ارتعاش. 5-تغییر در اجزاء وکار دستگاه. 6-نصب کاهش دهنده های صدا بر روی دستگاه 7- محصور کردن دستگاه

  23. کنترل در مسیر انتشار: 1- کنترل صدا مبتنی بر جذب صدا. 2- کنترل صدا مبتنی بر ایزولاسیون صوتی. 3-دفاع صوتی. 4-ایجاد پناهگاه صوتی برای کارگر.

  24. استراتژی کنترل مبتنی بر جذب: 1- اندازه گیری میزان صدا در کارگاه. 2-آنالیز صدا در کارگاه در مراکز اکتاو. 3-اندازه گیری سطوحی که قابلیت نصب جاذب در آنها وجود دارد. 4-تعیین ثابت اتاق در حالت معمولی (قبل از نصب جاذب صدا). 5-انتخاب ماده جاذب مناسب با توجه به نتایج آنالیز صدا،قابلیت نصب،هزینه،آسانی نصب،نگهداری و.... 6-محاسبه ثابت اتاق بطور تئوریک پس از نصب جاذب(با توجه به مورد3و 5). 7-محاسبه میزان کاهش صدای مورد انتظار بطور تئوریک. 8-در نظر گرفتن خطاهای احتمالی. 9-برآورد هزینه ها.

  25. PATH CONTROLS The second line of attack is controlling noise radiation along its transmission path.

  26. ACOUSTIC SHADOW ZONE

  27. PATH CONTROLS Note advertising space sold on the enclosure.

  28. PATH CONTROLS Another option for temporary noise barriers are acoustical curtains.

  29. COMPONENT 5 Hearing Protectors Available 85 to 90 dB Shall use 90 dB and higher Shall use if STS

  30. Standard Threshold Shift • Average 10 db loss at 2,000/3,000/4,000 Hz in either ear • This loss triggers hearing conservation actions such as administrative or engineering controls, and/or PPE

  31. Hearing Protection Types of Hearing Protection • There are three types of hearing protection – ear muffs, earplugs and ear caps. • Ear muffs and earplugs provide about equal protection, ear caps somewhat less. earmuffs earplugs ear caps 12

  32. Hearing Protection Ear Plug Comfort • Some people may find ear plugs uncomfortable to wear for long periods at first. • Ear plugs rarely cause infection or prolonged irritation of the ear canal. • Most people can find a comfortable fit by trying several different sizes, types or brands. • Custom-molded earplugs can be obtained for maximum comfort. custom molded earplugs 15

  33. Hearing Protection Inserting Foam Earplugs Foam type earplugs are one-size-fits-all and must be inserted properly into the ear. Roll earplug into small cylinder first, then insert in ear. 16

  34. Hearing Protection Inserting Foam Earplugs Earplug incorrectly inserted Earplug correctly inserted 17

  35. Hearing Protection Ear Muffs • Ear muffs cover the whole ear and are preferred by some people. • They have replaceable pads and some high-tech styles filter out specific noise pitches. • They last longer than most plugs. 18

  36. Hearing Protection Attached Earmuffs • Some muffs are attached to hardhats or goggles. • Some high-tech muffs can filter out certain frequencies or have radios inside for communication in high noise areas. 19

  37. Hearing Protection Ear Muff Comfort & Glasses • Muffs can be uncomfortable in hot weather. • Muffs don’t seal well for someone with glasses or heavy sideburns. 20

  38. Hearing Protection Ear Caps • Ear caps are like earplugs, except they do not go into the ear canal, they only block it. • They are good for occasional use or for people who find earplugs uncomfortable. • They are not as protective as earplugs or muffs. 21

  39. Hearing Protection Noise Reduction of Hearing Protection • The “noise reduction rating” or “NRR” of hearing protection is measured in decibels. • The NRR is found on the earmuff or earplug package. The higher the number, the greater the protection. 22

  40. Hearing Protection • Ear plugs and muffs are rated with an NRR (Noise Reduction Rating) • NRR marked on the package • NRR is a measure of how much noise is filtered out

  41. Manufacturer's NRR • Manufacturers' NRRs are best case • OSHA says reduce NRR by 7 decibels • Then take 50% off that number

  42. Hearing Protection Portable Radios/CD Players “Walkmans” do not provide protection from noise. The earphones are not earmuffs and the music only adds to background other noise. “Walkmans” can exceed 85 decibels alone. 28

  43. COMPONENT 6 • Requirements for noise standard • Company policy for noise reduction • Effects of noise • Hazardous noise sources at worksite • Training in the use of hearing protectors • Audiometry • Individual responsibilities for preventing NIHL • Management also needs to be educated about elements of HLPP

  44. COMPONENT 7RECORDKEEPING • Noise exposure Records • Audiometric Records • Hearing protection Records • Education Records • Other Records