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Qualitative Analysis (Babbie Chapter 13)

Qualitative Analysis (Babbie Chapter 13)

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Qualitative Analysis (Babbie Chapter 13)

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  1. Geography 237aResearch Methods Qualitative Analysis(Babbie Chapter 13) • Forms of Analysis • Approaches to Analysis • content analysis • semiotics • conversational analysis • Qualitative Analysis Concepts • Coding • Memoing • Code Retrieval • Code Display Geog 237a

  2. Two Forms of Analysis Variable Oriented • describes/explains a variable (dependent variable) • many, many cases • nomothetic • e.g., variables that predict increased “neighbourhood revitalization” Geog 237a

  3. Two Forms of Analysis Case Oriented • details of one or few instances • idiographic • case not typically reduced to only a few variables • e.g., explain “neighbourhood revitalization” in Wortley Village Geog 237a

  4. Approaches to Analysis Grounded Theory Approach • see Ch 10. • approach to theoretical development • analytical approach • Glaser and Strauss (1968) • inductive • preconceptions minimized • constant comparative method Geog 237a

  5. Approaches to Analysis Grounded Theory Approach Constant Comparative Method • method of formalizing conceptual definitions • incidence of code in one “text” is sought in all other texts • assumes that more occurrences across texts = better • see coding (this lecture) Geog 237a

  6. Approaches to Analysis Semiotics • study of signs and symbols • often in artefact, content analysis • denotative meaning – literal, obvious, commonsense meaning • connotative meanings – meaning in context of culture/society • e.g. “Ottawa” connotes “Canada”, specifically parliament. • e.g., Goffman gender, social status and advertising (see text) Geog 237a

  7. Semiotics Example Geog 237a

  8. Semiotics Example Geog 237a

  9. Semiotics Example Geog 237a Source: http://www.uvm.edu/~tstreete/semiotics_and_ads/

  10. Semiotics Example Geog 237a Source: http://www.uvm.edu/~tstreete/semiotics_and_ads/

  11. Semiotics Example Geog 237a Source: http://www.uvm.edu/~tstreete/semiotics_and_ads/

  12. Approaches to Analysis Conversational Analysis • analysis of the nuances of conversation • assumes nuances have important meaning • context of “utterances” determines meaning (e.g. sarcasm, humour) • e.g., doctor-patient relations Geog 237a

  13. Qualitative Analysis Concepts Coding • attaching themes to data • search and retrieval system • manual and/or computerized Transcript • full interview typed word for word from an audio tape Discrete Units of Text (Text Units) • division of data to which themes are attached • e.g., lines, paragraphs, whole documents Geog 237a

  14. Codes and DUTs Geog 237a

  15. Qualitative Analysis Concepts Coding Hierarchy • method of organizing codes • levels vs “flat” • categories, sub-categories, sub-sub-categories Geog 237a

  16. Coding Hierarchy Example Geog 237a

  17. Qualitative Analysis Concepts Open Coding • from close reading of text • typical form of coding Memoing • notes to self, thoughts • theoretical thoughts • refer to codes, theory, method (next steps) Code Retrieval • boolean searches (“and” “or”) • text searches • conceptual mapping Geog 237a

  18. Open Coding Exercise: Code this DUT Geog 237a

  19. Open Coding Exercise: Code this DUT Geog 237a

  20. Open Coding Geog 237a

  21. Memoing MEMO: for many, the term “risk” seems to, in the first instance, imply financial risk rather than health risk, or particularly the proposed landfill. Are these related at all? Do an intersect search ((financial risk) and (health risk or landfill risk)) Geog 237a

  22. Memoing MEMO: for many, the term “risk” seems to, in the first instance, imply financial risk rather than health risk, or particularly the proposed landfill. Are these related at all? Do an intersect search ((financial risk) and (health risk or landfill risk)) Geog 237a

  23. Memoing Code memos • details about code (theme) definitions • conceptual definitions – see previous notes on conceptualization • what does this code mean? Theoretical memos • relationships between codes (concepts) • deeper meaning of concepts Methodological memos data collection circumstances future research strategies Geog 237a

  24. MemoingCode Memo Geog 237a

  25. Code Retrieval Boolean Code Search • “and” – intersection, DUTs with BOTH code xand code y. • “or” – union, all DUTs with either code xor code y Geog 237a

  26. Code Retrieval Result Boolean Code Search • “and” – intersection, DUTs with BOTH code xand code y. • “or” – union, all DUTs with either code xor code y Geog 237a

  27. Code Modelling Geog 237a

  28. Code Counting/Summary Geog 237a

  29. Code Counting/Summary Geog 237a

  30. Representative Code Geog 237a