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Major Animal Phyla

Major Animal Phyla

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Major Animal Phyla

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  1. Major Animal Phyla Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata

  2. Phylum Poriferasponges • Have no definite shape – asymmetrical; • No tissues or organs • Colony of specialized cells • Immobile • Good powers of regeneration • Skeleton of spongin and spicules

  3. CLASSES OF SPONGES • Class Calcarea – has calcium carbonate spicules • Class Hexactinellida – glass sponges with spicules of silica • Class Demospongiae – no spicules, only spongin

  4. SPONGE ANATOMY

  5. Barrel sponge

  6. Vase sponge

  7. Tube sponge

  8. Venus Flower Basket

  9. Phylum Cnidariastinging-celled animals • Jellyfishes, corals, anemones • Radial symmetry • Two tissue layers with inner mesoglea • Primitive nerve net but no brain • 2-way digestive tract • Stinging cells for capturing food.

  10. CLASSES OF CNIDARIANS • Class Hydrozoa – Hydra, Portuguese-Man-of-War, Obelia; mostly polyp or hydroid stage • Class Scyphozoa – true jellyfishes; mostly medusa stage • Class Anthozoa – corals, anemones • Class Cubozoa – box jellies

  11. CLASS HYDROZOA Hydra

  12. CLASS SCYPHOZOA

  13. Moon jelly

  14. CLASS ANTHOZOA

  15. Sea anemone

  16. Aggregating anemones

  17. Anemone

  18. Coral polyps

  19. Coral reef

  20. CLASS CUBOZOA

  21. Phylum Platyhelminthesflatworms • First animals to exhibit bilateral symmetry • Have primitive brain • 3 tissue layers • Includes free-living flatworms and parasitic flatworms (tapeworms, flukes)

  22. CLASSES OF FLATWORMS • Class Turbellaria – free-living flatworms • Class Cestoda – tapeworms • Class Trematoda - flukes

  23. Flatworm

  24. Flatworm

  25. Flatworm

  26. Tapeworm head (scolex)

  27. Liver fluke

  28. Phylum Annelidasegmented worms • Earthworms, sandworms, leeches • One-way digestive system • Have well-developed digestive and circulatory systems

  29. CLASSES OF ANNELIDS • Class Oligochaeta – earthworms, bloodworms; oligo- means “few” and chaeta means a “bristle” or stout hair • Class Polychaeta – many bristles and parapodia (fleshly lobes to “walk” with • Class Hirudinea – leeches (most are NOT bloodsuckers)

  30. Christmas tree worm

  31. Feather-duster worm

  32. Fireworm

  33. Nereis – a polychaete

  34. Oligochaete

  35. Leech

  36. Phylum Mollusca-soft bodied animals • includes snails, slugs, nudibranchs, chitons, limpets, clams, oysters, squid, octopus, nautilus, etc. • Either have no shell, one shell, or two shells • Many have hard mouth parts (radula in gastropods, beak in cephalopods).

  37. CLASSES OF MOLLUSCS • Class Gastropoda – snails, slugs, conchs, nudibranchs; have either no shell or one shell; name means “stomach foot” • Class Bivalvia – clams, oysters, mussels; have two shells that hinge together • Class Polyplacophora – chitons; snail-like with 8 embedded plates on its back • Class Cephalopoda – squid, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish; name means “head foot”; well-developed nervous system

  38. Nudibranch

  39. Nudibranch

  40. Nudibranch

  41. Chiton

  42. Chiton

  43. Reef Squid

  44. Cuttlefish

  45. Blue-ring octopus

  46. Chambered nautilus