What You’ll Learn 1. Discuss ways to determine desirable weight and body composition. 2. Outline steps to follow for healthful weight gain and weight loss. 3. Evaluate common weight-loss strategies. 4. Discuss risks for developing eating disorders.
What You’ll Learn 5. Discuss facts about anorexia nervosa and bulimia. 6. Discuss binge eating disorder and obesity: the causes, symptoms, associated health problems, and treatments.
Key Terms • binge eating disorder • body composition • basal metabolic rate (BMR) • caloric intake • caloric expenditure • overweight • obesity • eating disorder • anorexia nervosa • bulimia
Weight and Body Composition • Weight management is a diet and exercise plan to maintain a desirable weight and body composition. • Desirable weight is the weight that is healthful for a person. • Body composition is the percentage of fat tissue and lean tissue in the body.
How to Determine Desirable Weight and Body Composition • The physician or dietitian will ask your age and measure your height and current weight. • The body frame is the approximate weight and density of the bone structure. • The basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is the number of calories the body uses at rest . • A calorie is a unit of energy produced by food and used by the body.
How to Determine Desirable Weight and Body Composition • There are two kinds of body fat. • Essential body fat is the amount of body fat needed for optimal health. • Adipose tissue is fat that accumulates around internal organs, within muscle, and under your skin.
How to Determine Desirable Weight and Body Composition • How to make a weight management plan • A weight management plan is based on caloric intake and caloric expenditure. • Caloric intake is the number of calories a person takes in from foods and beverages. • Caloric expenditure is the number of calories a person uses for basal metabolic rate, digestion, and physical activity.
How to Determine Desirable Weight and Body Composition • Goal setting • When planning any type of goal setting, it is best to create a health contract or some type of plan. • Set a target date to evaluate your progress, stating how the plan helped you accomplish your health goal.
How to Determine Desirable Weight and Body Composition • Decision-making skills • Making responsible decisions regarding your caloric needs can help you reach your goal.
Gaining Weight • A body weight that is 10 percent or more below desirable body weight is underweight. • People who are underweight may be malnourished. • Malnutrition is a condition in which the body does not get the nutrients required for optimal health.
How to Gain Weight • Teens who are underweight should have a physical examination to determine the cause. • They should work with a physician and/or a dietitian to develop a healthful plan for weight gain.
How to Gain Weight How to Gain Weight Healthfully • Increase food intake. Increase the number of servings from each group in the Food Guide Pyramid. • Follow the Dietary Guidelines. Do not develop harmful eating habits that are hard to break. • Watch eating habits and activity levels. Eat snacks between meals and exercise to increase muscle mass.
Gaining Weight • Overweight is a body weight that is 10 percent or more than desirable body weight. • Obesity is a body weight that is 20 percent or more than desirable body weight.
How to Lose Weight • A physician can check for other causes of overweight, such as an underactive thyroid gland. • People who are overweight and obese are at risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain cancers.
How to Lose Weight Steps to Lose Weight Healthfully • Decrease food intake. Select low calorie foods and beverages from each food group. • Follow the Dietary Guidelines. Be especially careful to choose low-fat and fat-free foods that are also low-calorie. • Stay active. Participate in regular physical activity that increases BMR. • Keep a journal. Keep a journal of food and beverage intake and weight loss.
Weight Loss Strategies • Developing healthful eating habits is one way to lose weight gradually. • Some people try other strategies for losing weight.
What to Know About Weight-Loss Strategies • Liquid diets • A liquid dietis a diet in which beverages are substituted for some or all meals. • While on a liquid diet, a person should have medical supervision with blood tests at set intervals. • Liquid diets sold in supermarkets and drugstores that do not require medical supervision can be dangerous.
What to Know About Weight-Loss Strategies • Fad diets • Afad diet is a quick weight-loss strategy that is popular for a short time. • Some people try so many different diets that they never develop healthful eating habits. • Some fad diets are dangerous.
What to Know About Weight-Loss Strategies • Prescription medications • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved prescription drugs for the treatment of obesity. • An anorectic drug is a drug that decreases appetite and, in some cases, increases serotonin levels in the brain. • Serotonin is a chemical in the body that helps regulate primitive drives and emotions.
What to Know About Weight-Loss Strategies • Starvation diets • Astarvation dietis a dangerous method of weight loss in which a person severely restricts calories resulting in a shortage of blood glucose. • The body relies on stored fat for energy and releases a high amount of fat into the blood. • Fat ketosis is a condition in which excessive ketones are released into the blood.
What to Know About Weight-Loss Strategies • Over-the-counter diet pills • Some diet pills can be purchased without a prescription. • Diet pills can be dangerous, addictive, and ineffective. • Teens who use diet pills often do not get a balanced diet and may suffer from malnutrition.
What to Know About Weight-Loss Strategies • Laxatives and diuretics • A laxative is a drug that helps a person have a bowel movement. • A diuretic is a product that increases the amount of urine excreted. • The use of laxatives or diuretics provides temporary weight loss because it is only fluid loss. • Fluid loss can be dangerous.
Eating Disorders • An eating disorder is a condition in which a person has a compelling need to starve, to binge, or to binge and purge. • To binge is to eat large amounts of food over a short period of time. • To purge is to rid the body of food by vomiting or by using laxatives and diuretics. • Eating disorders are addictions.
Why Some Teens Are at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders • Emphasis on appearance • Body image is the perception a person has of his or her body’s appearance. • Teens who have a positive body image look in the mirror and like what they see, while teens who have a negative body image look in the mirror and are dissatisfied. • Some teens develop a distorted body image and think they are fat when they are not.
Why Some Teens Are at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders • Uncomfortable with secondary sex characteristics • During puberty, the secondary sex characteristics develop. • Some teens have difficulty when these changes occur and may choose harmful ways to cope with their feelings, such as starving, bingeing, or purging.
Why Some Teens Are at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders • Perfectionism • Perfectionism a compelling need to be flawless. • Perfectionism is the result of feeling inadequate and insecure. • When teens who are perfectionists begin a diet, they may develop an eating disorder.
Why Some Teens Are at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders • The need to control • Some teens feel compelled to control every situation. • As a result, they diet or exercise to extremes as a way to show control.
Why Some Teens Are at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders • Expression of emotions • Some teens are not able to express their emotions and substitute other behaviors for the healthful expression of these emotions.
Why Some Teens Are at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders Behaviors of an Eating Disorder The following behaviors may indicate that you are at risk for developing an eating disorder: • • I constantly compare myself to others. • I am unhappy with my physical appearance. • I wear baggy clothes to hide my body changes (females). • •I felt unsafe during my childhood (from alcoholism, physical abuse, or sexual abuse in the family). • I only feel secure when I can feel that I am in control of a situation.
Why Some Teens Are at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders Behaviors of an Eating Disorder The following behaviors may indicate that you are at risk for developing an eating disorder: • I think it is disgusting to have menstrual periods. (females) • •I do not know what to do when I feel lonely, frustrated, rejected, or depressed. • I reach for food, starve, exercise, or rid myself of food when I am uncomfortable. • • I am never satisfied with anything I do. • My parent or guardian is never satisfied with anything I do.
Anorexia Nervosa • Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person starves himself or herself and weighs 15 percent or more below desirable weight. • Anorexia nervosa, which usually is referred to as anorexia, is life-threatening.
What to Know About Anorexia • Obsessed with being thin • People with anorexia do not recognize when they are dangerously thin. • The disease can affect males and females, teens and adults. • Many people with anorexia, especially teens, are obsessed with exercise and abuse laxatives, enemas, and diuretics.
What to Know About Anorexia • Perfectionism • Teens with anorexia often are good students and are obedient and respectful. • They often set very high expectations for themselves and feel inadequate if these expectations are not met. • To try to gain back control, they starve themselves.
What to Know About Anorexia • Treatment for anorexia nervosa • Treatment for anorexia involves a team of professionals—physicians, nurses, dietitians, and mental-health professionals. • A treatment plan is developed that deals with physical, mental, and emotional health problems.
What to Know About Anorexia How Anorexia Nervosa Harms Health Teens with anorexia may have: • • dehydration and constipation, • abdominal pain and nausea, • hormonal changes, • damage to body organs, • decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, • •impaired immune system function, • absence of menstruation in females, • hair loss and malnutrition, • negative self-confidence, • a lack of self-respect, • depression and an urge to withdraw.
Bulimia • Bulimia is an eating disorder in which a person binges and purges. • Bingeing and purging involves eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, then ridding the body of the foods. • Teens with bulimia may vomit or use laxatives or diuretics to purge.
What to Know About Bulimia • Bulimia is far more common than anorexia nervosa. • Obsession • People with bulimia are obsessed with their body shape and size. • Negative body image • Teens who have a negative body image are at risk for bulimia. • These teens often are insecure and depressed.
What to Know About Bulimia • Behaviors of teens with bulimia • Unlike teens with anorexia, teens with bulimia usually know they have a problem. • They feel guilty and ashamed, but are unable to change their behavior. • Many teens try to conceal their bulimic behavior.
What to Know About Bulimia • How bulimia harms health • Teens with bulimia may have dissolved tooth enamel, tooth decay, sore gums, enlarged salivary glands, and swollen cheeks. • Bulimia may cause damage to the colon, heart, and kidneys. • Treatment for bulimia • Treatment for bulimia involves a team of professionals who deal with physical and emotional health problems.
What to Know About Bulimia Signs of Bulimia in Teens Teens with bulimia may: • • binge in private, but eat regular amounts when with others, • have one secret place in which to binge, • steal food or hide it in a secret place, • think about food constantly and plan each binge carefully, • •buy or steal special treats or meals for a binge, • gulp food quickly while bingeing so as not to be discovered, • steal money to purchase food, or steal from stores • exercise and diet excessively between binges.
Binge Eating and Obesity • Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder in which a person cannot control eating and eats excessive amounts. • Between 2 and 5 percent of Americans experience binge eating disorder in a six-month period.
What to Know About Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity • Binge eating disorder is more common in females. • Teens with this disorder turn to food as a substitute for coping and, after time, become addicted to food. • Teens with binge eating disorder need medical and psychological help.
What to Know About Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity • How binge eating disorder and obesity harm health • There are many physical problems associated with binge eating disorder and obesity. • They include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. • Teens with binge eating disorder may have negative self-esteem, a negative body image and frequent bouts of depression.
What to Know About Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity • Treatment for binge eating disorder and obesity • Treatment for binge eating disorder and obesity involves a team of health-care professionals who deal with physical and emotional problems. • After weight loss, patients must learn new eating habits. • Therapy, nutrition classes, and support groups are helpful.
Anorexia v. Bulimia: What’s the Difference? Teens with anorexia… Teens with bulimia… Are often females Are often females age 14 to 18. age 15 to 24. Are very thin. May have normal weight. Deny their behavior. Are aware of their behavior and feel guilty, but cannot change. Deny they are hungry. Recognize they are hungry and want to eat.
Anorexia v. Bulimia: What’s the Difference? Teens with anorexia… Teens with bulimia… Withdraw from others. May be outgoing and social. Females do not have Females may have menstrual periods. irregular periods. Resist treatment. Are more likely to get help when they are confronted with their behavior.
Study Guide 1. Match the following terms and definitions. ___ adipose tissue ___ serotonin ___ malnutrition ___ basal metabolic rate ___ diuretic A. a condition in which the body does not get the nutrients required for optimal health B. a product that increases the amount of urine excreted C. the number of calories the body uses at rest D. a chemical in the body that helps regulate drives and emotions E. fat that accumulates around internal organs, within muscle, and under your skin E D A C B
Study Guide 2. Identify the following statements as true or false. _______ Obesity is a body weight that is 10 percent more than desirable body weight. _______ Bulimia is an eating disorder in which a person cannot control eating and eats excessive amounts _______ People with anorexia do not recognize when they are dangerously thin _______ To lose weight, your caloric intake must be less than your caloric expenditure false false true true
Study Guide 3. Identify four reasons why some teens develop eating disorders. Reasons some teens develop eating disorders include a negative or distorted body image, a compelling need to be flawless or perfect, and a need to show control. Some teens develop eating disorders because they are unable to express emotions or because they are uncomfortable with the development of secondary sex characteristics.